This section is from the book "Anatomy Of The Arteries Of The Human Body", by John Hatch Power. Also available from Amazon: Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body, with the Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart.
This artery arises from the posterior and external part of the femoral, at about an inch and a half to two inches below Poupart's ligament; in some rare cases it arises much lower down. It proceeds obliquely, at first downwards and outwards, over the tendon of the psoas and the upper extremity of the cruraeus muscle; it then turns inwards over the vastus internus muscle, becomes related externally to the anterior crural nerve at its division, and descends between the adductor longus and magnus, the former muscle separating it from the femoral artery. From its origin till it disappears behind its parent trunk, the artery forms a curve, the convexity of which is directed outwards: after its origin, it is situated on the outside of the femoral artery, afterwards it turns underneath it and becomes separated from it by the profunda and femoral veins, together with a quantity of areolar tissue containing several small vessels- and as it descends still lower, its terminating portion lies behind the adductor longus tendon. At first, therefore, the artery is comparatively superficial, but as it continues its course it becomes more deeply seated in the thigh. The profunda artery gives off the following branches:—
External Circumflex. Internal Circumflex.