Each Band or Clan of not less than five or more than ten members, elects its Chief for one year, or until his successor is elected. The Chief appoints his own Second Chief, to act in his absence, and also a Tally Keeper, who should be an artist, for it is his office to keep the records, the Winter Count, and the Tally Robe of his Band, and it is his glory to embellish them in all ways. A Wampum Keeper, also, is needed, and may be appointed by the Chief, though he, himself may act, unless otherwise arranged. The other members, even those of lowest degree, sit in the Council without election.

Two to fifteen, or even twenty, bands, unite to form a Tribe.

Every member of the Band is a member of the Tribe, because the tests are the same; and he may use the Tribal Totem and War Cry. But the Band has also a Totem and a War Cry of its own.

The Band keeps its own Tally, and raises what dues it pleases. But it also pays dues to the Tribe and is represented in the Tribal Council by its Chief and Nobles (if any) and such Tribal Councillors as it can elect.

One Medicine Man or Old Guide may serve for the whole Tribe.


The costume of the Little Lodge is a coat of olive-green khaki, with knee breeches of the same. Across the back from shoulder to shoulder, a line of fringe one inch deep.

The costume of the Big Lodge, of the Old Guide, and of the Medicine Man, is the same, with fringe on the shoulders but not across the back; and may have on the trousers, down the outer seam, from the knee to the bottom, a fringe which begins at a quarter-inch deep, and widens gradually till it ends an inch deep at the bottom.

On great occasions, much regalia and gorgeous Indian costumes are worn, but the badges are the same.