This section is from the book "Anatomy Of The Arteries Of The Human Body", by John Hatch Power. Also available from Amazon: Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body, with the Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart.
The Vesical Artery arises from the lowest part of the internal iliac, immediately before the latter vessel contributes to form the superior vesical ligament. It accompanies the ureter to the inferior region of the bladder, and its branches are distributed to this reservoir and to the prostate gland, vesiculae seminales, and urethra. One of its branches, the deferential artery, has been particularly mentioned by Sir A. Cooper: he describes it as the " second artery" in the spermatic cord, the spermatic artery being the first, and the eremasteric the third. "It takes its origin from the vesical artery, close to the commencement of the ligamentous remains of the umbilical artery ;" near the inferior fundus of the bladder it " divides into two sets of branches, one set descending to the vesicula seminalis and to the termination of the vas deferens; the other, ascending upon the vas deferens, runs in a serpentine direction upon the coat of that vessel, passing through the whole length of the spermatic cord ; and when it reaches the cauda epididymis, it divides into two sets of branches,—one advancing to unite with the spermatic artery, to supply the testicle and epididymis, the other passing backwards to the tunica vaginalis and cremaster."*
The bladder is supplied from other arteries also, viz., those given off by the pudic, obturator, and middle hemorrhoidal. There are also branches given off by the umbilical artery, but they are only pervious in a part of their course.
This vessel is merely a continuation of the internal iliac artery as it runs along the bladder towards the umbilicus: after a course of about two inches it becomes closed, and degenerates into the ligamentous remains of the umbilical artery, which, when pervious in the foetus, carried the blood to the placenta. This artery gives off small branches to the bladder.