This section is from the book "Anatomy Of The Arteries Of The Human Body", by John Hatch Power. Also available from Amazon: Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body, with the Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart.
The Superficial Temporal Artery arises immediately behind the neck of the inferior maxillary bone, and ascends through the parotid gland in front of the external auditory canal. It next passes between the attrahens auris muscle and the horizontal ramus of the zygoma, and ascends into the temporal region, accompanied by the superficial temporal twig of the inferior maxillary division of the fifth nerve : here it lies on the temporal aponeurosis, and is covered by a fascia of considerable strength, which is continuous with the cervical aponeurosis covering the parotid gland. In the middle of the temporal region the artery terminates by dividing into two branches.
The temporal artery gives off the following branches :
Glandular. Anterior Auricular.
Masseteric. Middle Deep Temporal.
Articular. Anterior Temporal.
The Glandular Branches are small twigs which come off from the artery, and are distributed to the structure of the parotid gland.
The Masseteric Branch is a small twig which passes forwards from the artery to supply the masseter muscle : there may be two or even more of these twigs.
The Articular Branch also passes forwards and supplies the structures entering into the formation of the tem-poro-maxillary articulation: this branch is also called the capsular artery.
The Anterior Auricular Branch passes backwards to supply the pavilion and auditory canal: it anastomoses with branches of the posterior auris.
The Middle Deep Temporal Artery arises immediately above the zygoma, pierces the temporal aponeurosis, and divides into several branches which ramify in the temporal muscle, and communicate with the other temporal arteries.
The Anterior Temporal Branch ascends tortuously towards the forehead, supplies the integuments, orbicularis palpebrarum, and muscles of the forehead, and anastomoses with the corresponding artery of the opposite side, and with the frontal and supra-orbital arteries. This is the branch selected for arteriotomy.