This section is from the book "Anatomy Of The Arteries Of The Human Body", by John Hatch Power. Also available from Amazon: Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body, with the Descriptive Anatomy of the Heart.
When the femoral artery is tied above the origin of the profunda, the circulation in the limb is carried on in the same manner as if the external iliac were tied.
When the femoral artery is tied beneath the origin of the profunda, we find the circulation maintained by the latter vessel, the circumflex branches of which freely anastomose with the anastomotic and inferior muscular branches of the femoral, and with the articular branches of the popliteal. If this operations have been performed for popliteal aneurism, the femoral artery afterwards becomes impervious as far up as the origin of the profunda;* and the portion of it between the ligature and aneurismal tumor may either be obliterated throughout,† or pervious throughout; or it may be partly pervious, being interrupted at different parts of its course by points of obliteration. If the femoral artery be tied below the profunda, independently of aneurism, the obliteration on either side of the ligature will extend to the next considerable branch. ‡
* In some of the cases, however, in which the artery has been tied low down, the impervious state may not extend to the origin of the profunda, but only to the origin of the muscular branches.
† Sir A. Cooper in Med. Ch. Trans., vol. i.
‡ Hodgson on the Arteries. Todd's Cyclop., art. Femoral Artery.