"It has been found that in many parts of the United States the soil classes of a given set are so evidently related through source of material, method of formation, topographic position, and coloration that the different types constitute merely a gradation in the texture of an otherwise uniform material. Soils of different classes that are thus related constitute a series. A complete soil series consists of material similar in many other characteristics, but grading in texture from stones and gravel on the one hand, through the sands and loams, to a heavy clay on the other." Ibid., p. 19.
This soil province includes all of Delaware and Florida and parts of Long Island, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and the following soil series are important to vegetable growers: Bastrop, Crockett, Laredo, Lufkin, Norfolk, Orangeburg, Portsmouth, Sassafras, Susquehanna and Webb. Of the miscellaneous trucking soils of this province the following may be mentioned: Collington sandy loam, Hempstead loam and muck and peat.
In Texas, 58,432 acres. (United States Bureau of Soils, Bul. 55, p. 97.) Melons and potatoes do well on the silt loams. The fine sandy loams are exceptionally well adapted to melons, potatoes, peanuts and vegetables when irrigated.
In Texas, 29,504 acres. The gravelly loam is well adapted to early vegetables.
In Texas, 55,040 acres. Ibid., p. 101: "Laredo silty clay loam, mapped in the Brownsville area, Texas, is a very productive soil and well adapted to growing early vegetables. . . . Lettuce, melons, cauliflower, beets, peas, cabbage, onions, eggplant, cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots and both sweet and Irish potatoes are all profitably grown under irrigation. Cabbage is the principal crop and the average yield is about 18,000 pounds an acre. . . . The clay loam is well adapted to the growing of onions, giving an average yield of about 20,000 pounds an acre." Vegetables do well on other types of the Laredo series when irrigation is practiced.
In Texas, Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana, 1,375,808 acres. Loam and sandy loam are adapted to potatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables.
In the Coastal Plain, 9,612,882 acres make the Norfolk series the most important trucking soil. It has a wide general distribution from Long Island to Texas. The fine sand is considered the leading soil for general trucking; 1,319,164 acres of this type have been surveyed. The Norfolk sand is an important soil because of its extreme earliness. It is especially valuable for the growing of radishes, spinach and other light crops for the early market. In North Carolina, asparagus is profitable on this soil and it produces excellent crops of early potatoes and lettuce in Virginia. The Norfolk sandy loam is largely planted in Irish and sweet potatoes and other heavy truck crops.
From North Carolina to Texas, 3,486,464 acres of the Orangeburg series are distributed. The sandy types are well adapted to cabbage, kale, lettuce and the root crops. The heavier types are used for celery, onions and cabbage.
In Maryland, 407,344 acres. Tomatoes are extensively grown in loams and sandy loams, which are also well adapted to medium early truck. The sandy types are light, well-drained soils and well suited to peas, asparagus, Irish potatoes and other vegetables.
In Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina and Maryland, 1,495,-990 acres. The fine sandy loam is well suited to truck crops.
In Texas, 184,512 acres. When the content of organic matter is large, the fine sandy loam is well adapted to growing Bermuda onions. Other vegetables have been grown to some extent.
Over 110,000 acres of this soil have been mapped in New Jersey and Maryland. It is one of the most productive soils of the trucking types.
This soil is of interest to vegetable growers because it is used to a considerable extent on Long Island. It is regarded as a fair soil for late truck.
United States Bureau of Soils, Bul. 55, p. 118: "An extensive and characteristic group of soils, usually known as 'bottom lands.' is found in the flood plains of numerous rivers and streams of the United States. The largest development of this group occurs along the Mississippi river, where the bottoms are often many miles in width." The most important series for trucking are Huntingdon, Miller, Wabash and Wheeling and the muck and peat soils.
258,496 acres of the Huntingdon series are distributed. Through a dozen states, the loam and the gravelly loam are largely used in trucking.
Wabash Series has 1,861,497 acres widely distributed. The loam can be used to advantage in growing canning crops, as sweet corn, tomatoes, peas and beans. The fine sandy loam is a good melon and potato soil and is also valued for other truck.
In Ohio and West Virginia, 20,032 acres. The gravelly loam has wide adaptation for truck crops. Melons and tomatoes are produced on the fine sand with marked results.
In Kentucky, Louisiana and Nebraska, 24,640 acres. These soils are highly valued for the production of celery, onions, peppermint and cabbage.
This area lies between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Appalachian mountains and extends from the Hudson river to east-central Alabama. The land is gently rolling to hilly. The sand (259,744 acres in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia) "is especially adapted to sweet potatoes and watermelons".
The loams, gravelly loam, sandy loam, and fine sandy loam of the DeKalb series are well adapted to vegetables. There are 760,266 acres of these types.
Limestone soils are not generally regarded as good truck soils, although they often produce excellent results. Cantaloupes are grown on silt loam in the Highland river region of Tennessee. The fine sandy loam of the Cumberland series is adapted to vegetables. The silt loam of the Decatur series is especially well adapted to cantaloupes. A variety of late garden crops is grown successfully on the Hagerstown series.
U. S. Bureau of Soils, Bul. 55, p. 143: "North of a line passing through northern New Jersey, northwestern Pennsylvania, southwestward through Ohio to Cincinnati, crossing the Mississippi river at St. Louis, following the south side of the Missouri river into Montana, where it crosses the Canadian boundary line, then dips southward into Idaho as a long lobe in the mountainous nonagricultural region, and crosses the northwestern part of Washington, including the Puget Sound region," there are 8,057,686 acres of glacial and loessial soils.
Of sand and fine sand, there are 107,008 acres. These types are well adapted to truck crops.
The sand and the fine sand are the best early truck soils of this section. The stony and gravelly sandy loams are fairly good truck soils.
The Custer silt loam produces profitable yields of beets, peas, cabbage and other vegetables. Lexington silt loam is suited to vegetables. Lynden fine sandy loam is well adapted to cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, garden peas, cucumbers and other vegetables. Madison loam does well when planted in cabbage, tomatoes and other truck crops. Portage sandy loam and Portage silt loam are regarded as valuable for vegetables. Rhinebeck loam produces good crops of cabbage. Whatcom silt loam produces profitable crops of peas and cabbage and other garden crops.
U. S. Bureau of Soils, Bul. 55, p. 153: "Occurs in the glacial region, principally as terraces around lakes, or along streams or as deposits in areas which were formerly covered by water".
When well drained, these soils are very productive. The loam is valued for cabbage and canning crops. The clay loam is extensively used for cabbage. "The fine sandy loam is a desirable truck soil and is admirably adapted to cabbage, tomatoes, peas, beans, cucumbers and potatoes." The gravelly sand and fine sand are suited to truck crops.
The fine sand is valued for early crops. The gravelly loam gives large yields of beans and potatoes. There are large areas in New York and Ohio.
In this region, 532,842 acres. These soils are highly valued for the production of celery, onions, peppermint, cabbage and lettuce.
The sand and the fine sand of the Fresno series are valued for vegetables under irrigation. The Hanford series when well drained are good soils for vegetables. Truck crops do well on the sandy loam of the Maricopa series. The soils of the Oxnard series are particularly well adapted to lima beans and the industry has been extensively developed on these soils. The Pla-centia series is used for beans and other vegetables. The fine sandy loam of the Sacramento series is valued for vegetables and the loam of this area is also used. The sandy types of the Salem series are good vegetable soils. When irrigated, the San Joaquin series are valuable trucking soils, and vegetables are grown to some extent on the Stockton series. There are 110,163 acres of muck and peat soils of the Pacific Coast valued for the crops usually grown on these lands. Puget clay soil and Puget fine sandy loam have deficient drainage, but when well drained and protected from overflowing, truck crops and potatoes are successfully grown. Puget silt loam gives promise of becoming a highly prized soil for small fruits and vegetables.