As to the naming of styles, the following must be observed. If we write American Cheese then we understand the well known store cheese, but if we write Cheese, American then it is a cheese made in the kitchen or pantry of a certain kind of cheese with eggs, spices, etc., a recipe that perhaps had its origin in America. A veal chop in Vienna style or veal collop, Vienna had its original name from the city in which the dish was prepared first, etc., On bills of fare we now often meet with names as Vienna collop; Victoria pudding; Maryland salad, etc. As a rule this construction of words can be used as we know that the names given to the dishes mean style designation. But when it comes to eatables as in the cases of the above named cheese, care has to be taken that the right thing is expressed.



Poule en mayonnaise

Chicken in mayonnaise

Veau en cari

Veal in curry

Potage en tortue

Mock turle soup; Soup like

of turtle

Carottes et pois

Carrots and peas

Poisson ou viande

Fish or meat



Gallina en mayonesa Huhnfleisch in Majonese

Ternero en cari Kalbfleisch in Kari

Sopa de tortuga ficticia; Falsche Schildkroten-Suppe;

Sopa como de tortuga Suppe wie von Shildkrote

Zanahorias y guisantes

Mohren und Erbsen

Pescado 6 carne

Fisch oder Fleisch

In conjunction with this we must add that en in French can sometimes have the meaning of a la maniere to express the form, the looks or the taste of a dish. If one reads e. g. potage en tortue then it means that the soup is made like a turtle soup. So the following: Chair de crabes en cocktail is cocktail de chair de crabes is chair de crabes a la cocktail is crabflake cocktail. Asperges en fricassee is asparagus like fricassee is asparagus in fricassee sauce is fricasseed asparagus. Cuisse de pore ro^i en chevreuil is roast leg of pork like venison or venison style.

Before all words in Spanish which begin with an o or ho there must be written u instead of d.

The Using Of Adjectives



Amerique americain, s, e, es Allemagne allemand, s, e, es

America American Germany German

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. pi. f.

Fromage d'Amerique Fromages d'Amerique Biere d'Allemagne Bieres d'Allemagne

American cheese* American cheese** German beer German beers

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. pi. f.

Fromage americain Fromages americains Biere americaine Bieres americaines

American cheese* American cheese** American beer American beers

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. s. f.

Fromage allemand Fromages allemands Bieie a'lemande Biere a l'americaine

German cheese* German cheese** German beer German beers

pi. f.

s. m. pi. m. pi. f.

Bieres allemandes Fromage a l'americaine Fromages a l'americaine Bieres a l'americaine

Cheese, American style* Cheese, American style** Beer, American style Beers, American style

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. pi. f.

Fromage a l'allemande Fromages a l'allemande Biere a l'allemande Bieres a l'allemande

Cheese, German style* Cheese, German style Beer, German style Beers, German style

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. pi. f-

Perdreau roti Perdreaux rotis Pomme de terre rotie Pommes de terre roties

Roast young pardridge Roast young pardridges Fried (roast) Potato Fried (roast) Potatoes



America american/o, os, a, as Alemania aleman, es, esa, esas

Amerika amerikanisch, e, er, es, em, en Deutschland deutsch, e, er, es, em, en

s. m. pi. m. .s. f. pi. f.

Queso de America Quesos de America Cerveza de Alemania Cervezas de Alemania

Amerikanischer Kase* Amerikanische Kase** Deutsches Bier Deutsche Biere

s. m. pi. m.

s. f. pi. f.

Queso americano Quesos americanos Cerveza americana Cervezas americanas

Amerikanischer Kase* Amerikanische Kase** Amerikanisches Bier Amerikanische Biere

s. m.

Queso aleman

Deutscher Kase*

pi. m.

Quesos alemanes

Deutsche Kase**

s. f.

Cerveza alemanesa

Deutsches Bier

pi. f.

Cervezas alemanesas

Deutsche Biere

s. m.

Queso a la americana

Kase, amerikanische Art*

pi. m.

Quesos a la americana

Kase, amerikanische Art**

s. f.

Cerveza a la americana

Bier, amerikanische Art

pi. f.

Cervezas a la americana

Biere, amerikanische Art

s. m.

Queso a la alemanesa

Kase, deutsche Art*

pi. m.

Quesos a la alemanesa

Kase, deutsche Art**

s. f.

Cerveza a la alemanesa

Bier, deutsche Art

pi. f.

Cervezas a la alemanesa

Biere, deutsche Art

s. m.

Perdiz asada

Gebratenes Rebhuhn

pi. m.

Perdices asadas

Gebratene Rebhiihner

s. f.

Papa asada

Gebratene Kartoffel

pi. f.

Papas asadas

Gebratene Kartoffeln

* singular **Plural

Judging by the foregoing instances we see that the adjectives in French and Spanish take the form and number of the noun to which they appeal. Especial care must be taken when an adjective follows more than one noun as e. g. echinee de pore rotie. Here rotie refers to echinee which is in the feminine-singular and not to pore which is in the masculine-singular. If we would write echinee de pore rotie then rotie refers to pore and the meaning would be saddle of roast pork; but it is roast saddle of pork. The same in Spanish: Filetes de carnero esto-fados and not filetes de carnero estofado. The latter means fillets of stewed mutton while the former is stewed fillets of mutton. But filete de carnero estofado is correct because here filete is singular. Cerdo asado and lomo de cerdo asado is right because both words cerdo and lomo are masculine-singular. But chul-etas de cerdo asadas and chuleta de cerdo asada. Also ragu de vaca asada (French: ragout de hoeuf roti) because here asada refers to vaca and not to ragu. It is a ragout of roasted beef, that is to say a ragu of vaca asada. If one would write ragu de vaca asado it would mean that it is a fried beef ragout. In French ragout and boeuf are masculine-singular and therefore the adjective is alike for both words.

If an adjective refers to more than one noun, then the masculine adjective in the plural is always used, also if the nouns are of two different genders. For instance abricot et pomme farcis, albaricoque y manzana rellenos and albaricoques y manzanas rellenos, etc.

If an adjective refers to a noun which is equal in the singular and in the plural then one writes the adjective in the singular or plural depending on whether one or more of an object is meant. For instance ananas. If one pineapple is meant one writes ananas glace; if more are meant ananas glaces, etc.

Some nouns are written in the singular only, but have a collective meaning like e. g. celeri. Here the singular adjective is used.

Only a few adjectives in the French and Spanish culinary languages are written before the nouns as e. g. the French demi, petit and gros and the Spanish gran.

From the given instances it will be noticed that the adjectives which follow an a la have one form only, and is the feminine - singular form. This is because a la is feminine and therefore all following adjectives that refer to a la must take the said form.

As to German adjectives, it should be noticed that they have different endings. One must be well versed in German to use the adjectives. All who are not well versed in German can use the adjectives abridged or behind the noun, because so only one form comes in consideration, as in English. If the adjectives are used behind the nouns as is sometimes done on German bills of fare, just as on English table cards, then only one form, not abridged, is used and that is the form, as shown in the following list of adjectives. The German adjectives can be written as follows:

Gebratenes Rindfleisch or abridged Gebraten. Rindfleisch Gerostete Kartoffeln " Gerosted. Kartoffeln.

Gebratenes Huhn Gebraten. Huhn.

Gefullter u. gespickter " Gefiillt. & gespikt.

Kalbsbraten Kalbsbraten.

One also can write more abridged.

Gebr. Rindfleisch Gerost. Kartoffeln Gebr. Huhn.

Gef. & gesp. Kalbsbraten.

When the adjectives are behind the nouns:

Rindfleisch gebraten Kartoffeln gerostet Huhn gebraten.

Kalbsbraten gefiillt u. gespickt.

One distinguishes six forms (endings) of adjectives as for instance: gebraten gebratene gebratener gebratenes gebratenem gebratenen.

In all four languages two adjectives are connected with et, and, y, und or the connection words are left out and a comma is placed instead of it. Pique et roti (pique, roti) ; larded and roasted (larded, roast-e d) meehado y asado (mechado, asado), gespickt und gebraten (gespickt, gebraten), etc.

Here follows a list of adjectives as to the main kinds of preparation of dishes in four languages.

List Of Adjectives



aigre, s, aigre, s

sour; sourish

bardé, s, e, es

barded; in bacon

blanc, s, blanche, s


bordé, s, e, es


boucan, s, e, es

dried; hung

bouilli, s, e, es


braisé, s, e, es

braised; steamed

brouillé, s, e, es


brun, s, e, es

brown; browned

candi, s, e, es


chaud, s, e, es

warm; hot

citronné, s, e, es


clair, s, e, es

clear; cleared

confit, s, e, es


conservé, s, e, es


cru, s, e, es


dépecé, s, e, es

pulled; picked

désossé, s, e, es


épuré, s, e, es


étouffé^ e, s, es;


[étuvé, s, e, es

farci, s, e, es

stuffed; filled; farced

faux, -, fausse, s,


fin, s, e, es


fourré, s, e, es


fouetté, s, e, es


frais, -, fraîche, s,


frit, s, e, es; au four

fried; baked

froid, s, e, es


fumé, s, e, es


garni, s, e, es


gélatineux, -, gélatineuse, s


glace, s, e, es

glazed; iced; frozen

grand, s, e, es

great; large

gratiné, s, e, es

gratin/at/ed; crummed and


grillé, s, e, es

broiled; grilled

haché, s, e, es




ácid/o, os, a, as; agri/o, os, [a, as

sauer; säuerlich

en tocino; tocinad/o, os, a, as

in Speckhülle

blanc/o, os, a, as


orlad/o, os, a, as


sec/o, os, a, as


cocid/o, os, a, as


rehogad/o, os, a, as

geschmort; gedünstet

revuelt/o, os, a, as


moren/o, os, a, as; tostad/o, [os, a, as

braun; gebräunt

garapiñad/o, os, a, as


caliente, s, caliente, s

warm; heiss

limonad/o, os, a, as


clar/o, os, a, as


confitad/o, os, a, as


conservad/o, os, a, as

konserviert; eingemacht

crud/o, os, a, as


tirotead/o, os, a, as

gezupft; gepflückt

pulpos/o, os, a, as


clarifiad/o, os, a, as


relleñad/o, os, a, as

• gedämpft

estofad/o, os, a, as


fictici/o, os, a, as

falsch; imitiert

fin/o, os, a, as


forrad/o, os, a, as


batid/o, os, a, as


fresc/o, os, a, as


frit/o, os, a, as

gebraten; gebacken

fri/o, os, a, as


ahumad/o, os, a, as


guarnecad/o, os, a, as


gelatinos/o, os, a, as;



glacial, es; glasead/o, os, a, [as; garaphiñado

glasiert; überglänzt; gefroren; geeist

grande, s,


gratinad /0, os, a, as

krumiert und gebacken;


emparrillad/0. os, a, as


picad/o, os, a, as


manié, s, e, es

floured; manieded

marine, s, e, es

marinaded; pickled

mêlé, s, e, es


noir, s, e, es


nouveau, x, nouvelle, s


panaché, s, e, es

variegated; mixed

pané, s, e, es


pressé, s, e, es


petit, s, e, es


piqué, s, e, es


poêlé, s, e, es

fried in pan

poivré, s, e, es; pimente, s,


[e, es

prêt, s, e, es


rissolé, s, e, es


rouge, s, rouge, s,


rôti, s, e, es

roasted; fried

roulé, s, e,. es


salé, s, e, es

salted; corned; cured

sauté, s, e, es


sec, s, sèche, s; séché, s, e, es


soufflé, s, e, es

puffed; souffled

sucré, s, e, es

sweet; sugared

truffé, s, e, es


vert, s, e, es


harinad/o, os, a, as


marinad/o, os, a, as


mezclad/o, os, a, as; mixt/o,


[os, a, as

negr/o, os, a, as


nuev/o, os, a, as


abigarrad/o, os, a, as;

farbig; bunt; gemischt


panad/0, os, a, as; panadeado


comprimid/o, os, a, as


pequen/0, os, a, as


mechad/o, os, s., as


frit/o, os, a, as, en sartén

gebraten in der Pfanne

pimentad/o, os, a, as


hech/o, os, a, as


tostad/o, os, a, as


roj/o, os, a, as


asad/o, os, a, as


arrollad/o, os, a, as; rollado


saladill/o, os, a, as; salado

gesalzen; gepökelt

sotead/o, os, a, as

überbraten; geschwungen

sec/o, os, a, as


soplad/o, os, a, as

aufgelaufen; aufgeblasen

dulce, s; azucarad /o, os, a, as

süss; gesüsst; gezuckert

criadillad/o, os, a, as


verde, s