This section is from the book "Sporting Dogs. Their Points And Management In Health, And Disease", by Frank Townend Barton. Also available from Amazon: Sporting Dogs; Their Points and Management in Health and Disease.
Loss of blood may arise either from within or without the body, be of varying amount, and either arterial, venous, or capillary.
Excessive haemorrhage is of course always injurious, but its gravity is greater when issuing from some vital part, such as the lungs, stomach, kidneys, cranium, etc.
In lung haemorrhage the blood is coughed up, and of a bright-red colour—fresh blood.
When coming from the stomach it is generally intermingled with the vomited material.
If issuing from the urinary apparatus, it is either mingled with the urine, so as to stain this fluid, or passed as blood at the end of the act of urination.
In the latter case, it will most probably be coming from the bladder, or the kidneys.
Haemorrhage from the bowels is passed along with the stools, or immediately following the act of defecation, as frequently happens in piles.
Rupture of the heart, or the larger vessels gives rise to a rapid and fatal haemorrhage.
The treatment, with a view to arrest the bleeding, will of course depend upon the conditions through which it has been brought about.
If from without, e.g., a wound, the bleeding vessel ought to be ligatured, or else have a compress fastened on so as to exercise sufficient pressure upon and above the injured vessel.
When bleeding is due to small blood-vessels having been torn, tincture of steel, Friar's Balsam, etc., will sometimes be sufficient to arrest it.
Cold water, or an ice compress is equally useful. When blood comes from the lungs, e.g., a gunshot wound in this region, there is generally a certain amount of bronchial irritation, so that the dog must be kept warm. Have ice compresses applied to the chest, and 15 grains of gallic acid given three times a day. If this fails, Adrenalin Tablets can be tried.