(Length, 10 inches).

(Fig. XV, 33.) The ureter passes nearly vertically downwards from the hilum of the kidney (just below and internal to the junction of the transpyloric and lateral vertical planes), and dips into the true pelvis in close relation to the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. This vessel bifurcates into internal and external iliacs at the junction of the upper and middle thirds of a line drawn from a point 1/2 inch below and to the left of the umbilicus (the aortic bifurcation) to a second point situated half-way between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis. This apparently complicated surface marking for the ureter will be rendered more easy by a reference to the diagram. The right ureter generally dips into the pelvis just below the bifurcation of the common iliac artery.

(Fig. XVII, 11.) The course of the ureter on the posterior aspect of the trunk can be represented by a line drawn vertically upwards from the posterior superior iliac spine to the level of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra.

The ovary lies in the angle between the internal and external iliac arteries, (Fig. XV, 34.) immediately below the pelvic brim and anterior to the ureter.

The urachus is directed upwards from the apex of the bladder, (Fig. XX, 15.) at the upper border of the pubic symphysis, to the umbilicus.