It will be here in place to again lay stress on the fact that the apex of the upper main lobe lies about 1 inch above the clavicle in the supraclavicular fossa, under cover of the clavicular head of a well-developed sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, (Fig. XVI.Fig. XVII, 7.) and that the apex of the lower lobe lies immediately below and external to the spine of the second dorsal vertebra.

The roots of the lungs lie opposite the spines of the fourth, fifth, and sixth dorsal vertebras, and the bodies of the fifth, sixth, and seventh vertebras. (Fig. XVII, 8.)

They may be so represented, lying also midway between the median posterior line and the vertebral border of the scapula, the arms hanging loosely from the shoulders.