In the first place it unduly excites the activity of the organs. Next, by impeding oxidation it interferes with the proper preparation of nitrogen wastes: they are brought to the kidneys in an unfit state for removal, and injure those organs. Third, when more than a small quantity of alcohol is taken, some of it is passed out of the body unchanged, through the kidneys, and injures their substance.

The kidney-disease most commonly produced by alcohol is one kind of " Bright's disease," so called from the physician who first described it. The connective tissue of the organ grows in excess, and the true excreting kidney-substance dwindles away. At last the organ becomes quite unable to do its work, and death results.

What is the consequence of removing the kidneys? Of kidney-disease ? How is serious disease of the kidneys most often produced?

How does cold injure the kidneys? When have they to do the work of the skin? What diseases especially affect them? State of the kidneys during recovery from these diseases? Precautions to be taken ?

State one effect of alcohol on the kidneys. Another ? A third ? What kidney-disease is commonly produced by alcoholic excess? How are the kidneys altered by it? Results?