1. Introduction

Emotions are commonly experienced phenomena But their sub tier subsets are very difficult to comprehend In fact the intricacies of human emotions are so complex that they are not understood in their entirety even by individual who experiences them. The concept that the emotions are not restricted to the body but are in and around body adds further complex dimension to the understanding of emotions Even more difficult to understand are mechanisms underlying them.

The most important characteristic of emotions is that on the one hand they intricately and inseparably associated with our body and on the other hand they are inseparably associated with our consciousness and phenomena such as religion, law, ethics, social conventions and interpersonal relationships.

Emotions therefore can be cause of our bodily health or disease as 111 they can be cause of the health or disease of the society.

Emotions can drive us towards eternal life and they can lead us to suicides. Emotions can propel us towards inner harmony and universal harmony as 111 as they can be conducive to personal agonies or universal strife.

2. Definition

It is difficult to define emotion exactly It is a more or less purposive and organised response of an individual to environmental (external and internal) stimuli and is marked by neuroendocrine responses and conscious concomitant. The actual physical nature of the experience and the conscious concomitant has not be known to us so far SANKHYA philosophy describes and discusses these issues in a convincing, but not in a demonstrable manner.

3. Classification

Emotions can be classified in various ways. Thus one can consider i) Emotions which are close to instincts such as emotions associated mother instinct parental instinct, sexual instinct, protective instinct and feeding instinct lij Emotions associated with beliefs such as those towards the idols which are worshipped ui) Emotions associated with social conventions e.g. emotions related to fame, respect, position, richness etc.

iv) Emotions related with ethical concepts in a given society e.g. Polygamy, Monogamy, adultery, promiscuity, prostitution, premarital sex, dnnkmg of alcohol, eating vegetarian or non-vegetarian food etc.

v) Emotions related to family structure and social relations thus emotions associated with relationships such as DADA-PITA, NANA-POTA, MAMA- BHANJA, CHACHA-BHATTJA, BHABHI-DEVAR, BAHAN-BHAI- BAHANOI, FUFI, MAUSI, SASUR-SANS-BAHU, MATA-PITA BETA-BETt.

One can app reciate that the versatility,of these relaho nships and richness and profundity of emotions associated with them is unique to India. One can not translate these relationships {and many more) in appropriate a manner in English vi) Emotions associated with identity of place of birth, language, caste, creed, color of the skin, ones country, one's religious identity etc. are of great significance if I consider the social dimensions they have and the unrest caused by or quelled by these emotions , vnj Emotions associated with particular ideology .One can easily think of emotions of those who dedicate themselves to and remain in fold of a particular ideology Such emotions can be really potent and lead to major upheavals in world vuijThe concept of Geeta teaches us of state of being in which an individual is beyond the influences of emotions The individual however is not without emotions This state is called S THITAPRAJNYA The individual is said to have (through his consciousness) merged with the rest of the universe and has therefore risen above the influence of emotions.

4. Types Of Emotions

It is interesting to note that B HAG A V AD GEETA has described m 16th, 17th and ISth chapter different types of attitudes, intelligence, knowledge, perspectives, meditations, yajnyas, donations,behaviors etc associated with various types of emotions.

I will try to the purport of the sam e The emotions associated with total ignorance about one's SELF are hatred malice, jealousy pride, lust etc These lead to perceptions and behavior which are reflected in personal familial, social, professional life of the person It would be reflected in political life also.

Thus the individual would be lazy or erratic in his personal behavior. He would eat and drink at the cost of his own wife, his children, his parents etc Socially he would display the worst standards of civic sense and may be criminal as 111. Professionally he would indulge in all types of antisocial activities such as destroying the hutments for personal gains, taking bribe and still not doing the work, doing appendicectomy or caesarean sections without any indications etc These are characteristics of behaviors resulting from such emotions In political life he would be associated with terrorism or fanaticism People in rule would manifest these emotions in craving for personal gains. They would keep planning things in such way that at they themselves be benefited at the cost of people These traits are classically termed, TAMAS.

The emotions associated with some degree of evolution are associated with consideration of others' views. Knowledge of SELF is present but very indistinctly. These emotions are selfishness, greed, enthusiasm, want of respect and fame, hypocrisy, desire to dominate excessive competitiveness etc . The individual would attend to his bodily desires excessively and would be very active. But he would also do it to others in his family with intense feelings but also would expect the same in return. Socially the person would always try to project himself or herself at every possible opportunity. He or she would try measures beyond acceptable norms to achieve success. But this could not generally involve harm to severe to others Thus corruption would be no bar there would be certain norms observed in the corruption' Politically speaking the planning would be for personal gains but without completely ruining the people's interests. These type of emotions and the resultant behaviors are classically termed RAJAS.

The individual who has undergone fair degree of evolution gets at least glimpses of his true SELF and his mind broadens His emotions are love and caring for the family and friends without expecting anything in return. He feels sad for the misery of others. He is kind empathic. These emotions of love and friendliness lead to considerate attitude, magnanimity and hence generosity, helpfulness or public service, mutual respect, charity, activities for the justice and Welfare for everyone By virtue of these a person would be truthful, honest, committed to his/her duty, fearless, and usually involved in political, cultural, intellectual or environmental, economic and such struggles (directly or indirectly) for universal justice and harmony In classical parlance this is called SATVLKA.

For social as 111 as personal point view when the SATVLKA ls overshadowed by TAMAS ft RAJAS the society and its members go through emotional tortures and tribulations. Whenever a particular society or mankind is being ruled by TAMAS emotions one can safely conclude that the society is heading towards destruction.

5. Physiology In Brief

Experience Vs Expression:

The mechanism of experience or awareness of die emotional tone is not known What scans the top scanner areas in brain?

Expression: Cortical areas. Limbic system, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, the muscles concerned and glands such lachrymal glands are involved in the expression of emotions. It has to be appreciated that body posture, associated limb movements, abdominal and respiratory muscles also play part in expression of the emotions.

6. Methods Of Study

A| Methods used in man a| Experimental and clinical and b) Those employed by Indian sages and nshis.

B| Methods used m amn-.als.

A. Methods Used In Man. A) Experimental And Clinical

i. In man various methods can be used involving techniques such as study of EEG patterns and their association with particular emotions.

ii. In Neurosurgery cases where the patient is conscious one can use stimulation of surface of the cerebral cortex and association with emotions iii) The polygraphs can be used to detect autonomic changes associated with various emotions and thereby neuroendocrine parameters can be studied in details.

iv. Study of patients with disturbed emotions by using various instrumental or clinical tests eg. TAT test.

B) Those Employed By Indian Sages And Rishis

The Indian sages evolved the art or method of enabling oneself to rise above petty self, observe, understand and handle ones emotions They also evolved various systems of yoga.

B. Methods Used In Animals

1) Ablation.

2} Stimulating (electrical and chemical) 3} Electrical recording.

4) Implanted electrodes.

In all 1,2 and 3 one can use stereotactic surgical technique so as to be precise and accurate.

5) Neurohistological techniques (precise and elegant in animal experiments but lacks correlation with subjective perception The neurohistology in humans is not elegant though the perceptual details are relatively vast.

In animals rage, placidity, pleasure and behavioral patterns associated with reproduction Ire studied.

Sham Rage

Goltz and E wald [1896]studied decorticated dogs and cats Lashing of tail, erection of hairs, protrusion of claws, dilatation of pupils, biting, struggling etc. Ire observed These point to SYMPATHETIC OVERACTIVITY.

This condition is called sham because true rage cannot exist in absence of higher cortical mechanisms. This is not 111 directed hence relatively innocuous Posterior and ventral portions of diencephalon are responsible for the above because if hypothalamus, is cut entirely then sham rage disappears.

Wheatiey s Selective destruction of satiety centers leads to true rage phenomenon In tins case there is direction and the animal is really vicious and chronic and incurable and savage.

It is important and interesting to extrapolate (though very carefully and cautiously] these facts to the behavior of criminals and psychiatric patients.

7. Applied Aspects

Having considered the importance of emotions in an individuals as 111 as mankind's life I can enumerate some measures which will surely help in emotional stability, maturity and evolution Further it can help in mastery over emotions and thus utilization of (instead of being used by) emotions.

a) PRANAYAMA of suitable type.

b) Long walk every day.

c) Sound sleep every day.

d) Moderation in eating and drinking and other personal habits.

e) Use of flowers and plants for interior decoration.

f) Use of appropriate colors, fragrance, music etc.

g) Practice of NAM ASM ARAN in the morning before attending to anything or anybody else and also whenever feasible. NAMASMARAN is chanting in mind, or loudly of the name of God or Guru This can be done according to one5 customs, traditions or choice.

h) Cold or warm bath everyday morning and preferably in the evening as HI.

i) Slow and deep breathing intermittently.

j) Making a list of activities and its regular prioritizing k) Everyday evaluation of social utility and even the quality of the social utility of one's activity.