The production of an artificial communication between the stomach and the small intestine serves to allay the excessive vomiting that ensues from obstruction of the pylorus, and in many cases relieves the pain and also retards the progress of the growth. If, therefore, the vomiting cannot be controlled by medical treatment, and threatens to curtail existence by the exhaustion it induces, the operation may be recommended as a palliative measure. To be accomplished successfully it should be performed as early as possible; and, in those cases which only come under observation in an advanced state of exhaustion, it is advisable to have recourse to rectal feeding for several days before the operation is attempted.