The English Walnut is largely cultivated in Europe, both for its timber and fruit. The black walnut is far superior, both as a shade-tree and for its timber. It would hardly pay to cultivate the tree excepting for its fruit, which is always marketable. The blossoms are very apt to be nipped and destroyed by the spring frosts, and, like the black walnut, fruit-trees will not thrive near it. Its exhalations are so disagreeable that we have authentic cases on record where people have been seriously affected by sleeping in its shade. It is best propagated by grafting.