This is one of our largest and loftiest tree's, being ninety feet or more in height, and from five to six feet in diameter. Its wood is rather coarse-grained, but possesses considerable strength and durability. It is esteemed next to the live-oak. Its bark is used for dyeing and also for tanning, being very rich in tannic acid. This tree ripens its fruit biennially. As is the case with all the trees that ripen their fruit biennially, the quality of the timber is inferior to that of the timber that ripens its fruit annually. It is found all over the United States, and nourishes in poorer soils than the white oak. It is the only one of the oak family that grows on the barren sand-ridges of Illinois.