Hancornia speciosa, the source of Mangabeira rubber, occurs in the South-West of Brazil and extends as far south as Rio de Janeiro. It grows on plateaux at an elevation of 3000 to 5000 feet It is a small tree with narrow leaves %nd a drooping habit like that of a weeping birch. The fruit is yellow and edible, somewhat resembling a plum. Tapping is carried out in various ways similar to those adopted in the case of Manihot, but it is said that all the different processes are leading to the extinction of the plant Coagulation is generally effected by the addition of a solution of alum or some other salt The result is a wet rubber which is not much valued in this country. The yield of rubber is, however, said to be considerable, and the plant appears to deserve closer attention than it has hitherto received.

The same remark applies to some of the species of Sapium, which grow at high elevations in Colombia and Guiana. The Sapiums are large and hardy trees ; nevertheless they have been largely exterminated in their native forests by reckless tapping.

Other rubber-producing species of the Western Hemisphere deserving of mention are Forsterionia gracilis in Guiana and F. floributida in Jamaica These are climbing plants comparable with the Landolphias of Africa.