Among the larger animal pests of rubber plantations are elephants, deer, cattle, pigs, monkeys and porcupines. All these animals are liable to effect widespread destruction in young clearings, and porcupines may even cause serious damage to adult trees by gnawing off the bark. A good deal can be done by fencing to exclude all the above-named animals with the exception of monkeys, but in order to be effective the fencing must be very thoroughly carried out Deer can easily clear a six-foot fence, whilst barbed wire is a matter of supreme indifference to an elephant who has made up his mind to proceed in a certain direction. The lower part of the fence must be of wire netting if porcupines are to be excluded.