These may be either plain, medicated, or nutritive. For the two first-named purposes, either warm or cold water may be used, the amount varying with the effect it is desired to produce.

To empty the lower end of the bowel, from half to three pints will be found sufficient for most sporting dogs.

A little salt, soft soap, and glycerine, will increase the activity of the clyster.

A chronic, torpid condition of the lower end of the bowel is best overcome by injecting about half a teacupful of cold water into it every morning, at the same time allowing plenty of exercise and a soft diet, such as oatmeal, or wet bread and meat.

In diarrhoea, dysentery, etc., good results are often obtained by giving a cold boiled-starch clyster. About four tablespoonfuls will be enough at a time. When it is desirable to administer nourishment by the rectum, it is necessary to wash out the lower end of the bowel with a warm-water clyster, before injecting the nutritive medium.

The yolk of an egg, a dessertspoonful of brandy, and a teaspoonful of sulphuric ether makes a useful, sustaining enema.

Another good injection is a couple of teaspoonfuls of salt, dissolved in half a pint of tepid water, then injected.

Loss of blood, etc., can often be made up by the use of this saline injection.