Mr. H. Faija was an early experimenter in accelerated tests for soundness, and about 1882 he began the use of a "steamer," using a temperature of about 110° Fahr. After eleven years' use he still believed this temperature to be high enough to detect tendencies to expand in faulty cements. The apparatus1 "consists of two vessels, one within the other, a water space being thus maintained between them, which assists in equalizing the temperature of the inner or working vessel." The latter is partially filled with water and is provided with a rack or shelf near the top. A thermometer is inserted through the cover of the inner vessel, and the water within is kept constantly at 110° Fahr. As soon as the pat is gaged, it is placed on the rack in the vapor, which will be at about 100° Fahr. After six or seven hours in this moist heat, the pat is immersed in the warm water. "In the course of twenty-four hours it is taken out and examined, and if then found to be quite hard and firmly attached to the glass, the cement may at once be pronounced sound and perfectly safe to use; if, however, the pat has come off the glass and shows cracks or friability on the edges, or is much curved on the under side, it may at once be decided that the cement in its present condition is not fit for use." Mr. Faija also recommended, in case of failure in the first test, that the cement be spread out in a thin layer for a few days and a second test made. If the cement passes this second test, it is pronounced sound and fit for use after being stored a sufficient length of time.