When a bone is displaced at a joint or dislocated, the ligaments are more or less torn and other surrounding soft parts injured. This generally leads to inflammation and swelling, which make it difficult to find out in what direction the bono has been displaced, and also greatly add to the difficulty of replacing it, or, in surgical language, of reducing the dislocation. The muscles attached to it are, moreover, apt to pull the dislocated bone more and more out of place. Medical aid should therefore be obtained as soon as possible ; in most cases the reduction of a dislocation can only be attempted with safety by one who knows the forms of the bones and possesses sufficient anatomical knowledge to recognize the direction of the displacement.*

What movement is allowed between ulna and humerus? What between radius and humerus? Around what does the radius rotate when we turn the hand over?

Do gliding joints allow free movement? Give instances of gliding joints.

What is a dislocation? What parts are injured when a joint is dislocated?

A sprain is an injury to a joint, accompanied by straining, twisting, or tearing of the ligaments, but without dislocation of the bones. A sprained joint should get immediate and complete rest, continued for weeks if necessary ; if there be much swelling or continued pain, medical advice should be obtained. Perhaps a greater number of permanent injuries result from neglected sprains than from broken bones. It has been found that a moderate sprain, which in a healthy adult would readily get well, in a person of alcoholic habits often results in an inflammation of the membranes in and about the joint which it is both hard and tedious to cure.

What results from this injury ? What is meant by " reducing a dislocation" ? Why should medical aid be obtained as soon as possible after a joint has been dislocated ?

What is a sprain? How should a sprained joint be treated? What should be done at once if there is much swelling or continued pain ? Are neglected sprains apt to lead to permanent injury ? What has been observed by medical men concerning sprains in persons of alcoholic habits ? What is stated concerning gout ?

* Dislocations of the fingers can usually be reduced by strong pulling aided by a little pressure on the parts of the bones nearest the joint. The reduction of a dislocation of the thumb is much more difficult, and can rarely be accomplished without skilled assistance.

Gout is pre-eminently an alcoholic disease. An authority says: " It is always the effect of alcohol, either in the individual or his ancestors." This is perhaps putting the matter a little too strongly: lead-poisoning (as in the case of house-painters), or too much albuminous food in the diet, combined with a physically idle life, may lead to gout; but in the majority of cases alcohol is the cause.