The characters of a typical cervical vertebra are :-Body small, shallow from above downwards, concave transversely above and sagittally below, so that it overlaps the next body in front, broader transversely than antero-posteriorly in proportion 3 : 2. Pedicles rounded and near mid-level of the body, so that upper and lower intervertebral notches are nearly equally deep. Lamina flat, long, meeting nearly at a right angle, and overlapping those below. Transverse process contains (vertebrarterial) foramen for the vertebral vessels, separating true transverse and costal elements, these being joined by a costo-transverse bar, and beyond this projecting as posterior and anterior tubercles respectively : the tubercles separated by a neural groove for issuing spinal nerve lying on the " transverse process." Articidar processes on strong columns of bone : upper looks backwards and rather upwards, lower looks forwards and rather downwards. Spinous process bifid, ending in two angled projections. Spinal foramen large and more or less triangular in shape.