1. Excavations should be done piecewise, in order that too much earth may not be turned up at one time.
2. The laborers should come from the region in which the work is done. Only the robust and healthy should be employed.
3. Machines are to be used as far as possible.
4. The work should be interrupted during the months of July, August, and September. If the work does not permit of postponement, it must be done during these months only by day.
5. The laborers should pass the night in camps or be quartered in caserns. The latter should be removed as far as possible from the working place. The windows should be hermetically closed before evening. Tents should be rejected.
6. Morning and evening fires should be lighted at the working places.*
7. Clothing should be flannel.
8. Drink should be good water; if this is wanting, tea.
9. In the morning, before beginning work, a warm meal should be taken (tea, bouillon, coffee),
10. In the warm season, 0.5 to 1.0 quinin pro die should be taken as a preventive.
The neglect of these rules produced frightful results in many an army. We may recall the occupation of Walcheren by the English in 1809. The troops, numbering 50,000 men, were landed in August,-in other words, the worst season of the year,-and, as a consequence, were decimated.
The English expedition to the gold coast of Guinea (1874) succeeded much better. At the advice of the physicians the troops were allowed on land only during the month of January. The morbidity was insignificant. As a tribute to the medical men this expedition was called "The Doctor's War."
The previously mentioned Ashanti expedition of the English in 1895 was also magnificently conducted. The 3000 troops were landed in March, on account of it being the healthiest month. Prep ations had been made so that the troops started for the interior without spending an hour on the coast. This was accomplished by the previous laying out of a road by the natives and the building of suitable shelter along the way. The 3000 soldiers had at their disposal 12,000 natives to carry their ammunition, baggage, etc. As a consequence, among the 3000 only 17 fell ill. How many of the natives succumbed in making the preparations has not been stated.
The French expedition to Madagascar (1895) showed frightful losses on account of the long, unnecessary sojourn of the troops on the coast.
The civilized countries of Europe now erect stations in their tropical colonies to serve as refuges during the unhealthy parts of the year for the white officers, merchants, soldiers, etc. In the laying out of such stations highly situated places are chosen, provided, of course, these manifest no other hygienic disadvantages. Well known places throughout India are Simla, Darjiling, and Outakamund, although there are numerous others in the process of development. We may also mention in Ceylon, Kandy; in Java, Salatiga and Tosari; in Jamaica, Hope Gardens and New Castle; in La Reunion, Salazie. In the case of ships' crews, a return on board before twilight was advisable. The sleeping on board at night was one of the best means of prophylaxis.
* It was noticed by Lancisi that brickmakers remained immune in the midst of malarial regions.