* Reuss, "Annales d'hyg. pub.," 1890, No. 2.

** Beginning of the influenza epidemic in Paris, November 17.

*** See the statistics of P. Friedrich.

Moreover, there exists also much statistical material from the epidemics following the pandemic, especially for Germany and England. We cannot go into detail, but it may be mentioned that the influenza mortality in the years 1891 and 1891-1892 in both countries was greater than at the time of the pandemic (due to the longer duration and especially to the much more malignant character of the after epidemics).

According to the official reports of both countries, the deaths from influenza were:

1890 in Prussia...... 9,576

1891 " " ...... 8,050

1892 " " ......16,686

In England...... 4,523 persons.

" " ......16,686 " *

" " ........................... " **

The number of deaths from influenza in London amounted to:

From January to March, 1890 (pandemic)............. 558 persons.

" May to July, 1891 (second epidemic)......2,104 "

" January to March, 1892 (third epidemic)........2,078 "

Quite a number of important conclusions can be drawn from the statistics in regard to danger to life at different ages. The following apply to all the epidemics: First, that the general mortality of children under one year was either not at all, or only slightly, influenced by influenza; and this observation applies also to infant life generally; second, that the greatest mortality from influenza occurred in the aged.

This is true only of the statistics from Germany. The English statistics, on the other hand, in the last epidemics, as well as in the earlier ones, from 1837-1838 and from 1847-1848, show a decidedly greater mortality among children under one year and in children of from one to five years of age, as compared with the later years of childhood or adolescence. F. Schmid arrived at the same conclusion from his laborious statistical investigations in Switzerland. Since the statistics of both England and Switzerland, which agree also with the German statistics, show that the morbidity of early childhood is a remarkably low one, the conclusion must be drawn that influenza is most dangerous in early child life, as well as old age. But this is in direct contradiction to the statements of most of the observers, for they have especially called attention to the harmless and light character of influenza in patients at this age. There are then contradictions between general experience and the statistics of England and Switzerland which are at present inexplicable.

* Two epidemics: in the spring and in the fall and winter, ** Not mentioned in Parsons' statistics.