In this country, within recent times, it will be found that most of our mulattos, quadroons and octoroons, are the children of casual and illegitimate unions. In Sumatra it is a very uncommon thing for a Malay to marry a Kubu; * the Munda Kols punish severely a girl who is seduced by a Hindu, although such intercourse with one of her own tribe is very lightly regarded;* and Gobineau remarks that" not even a common religion, and country, can extinguish the hereditary aversion of the Arab, Turk and Kurd, for the Nestorians of Syria,"1

Marriages between Lapps and Swedes are of rare occurrence; as they are also between Lapps and Norwegians, and between Russians and either of the other races." The Hebrews have always maintained the purity of their race, and the Romans were prohibited by law from marrying barbarians, Valentinian even inflicting the death penalty therefor.1 Tacitus tells us that the early Germans persistently refused marriages with alien tribes or nations.1 In Equatorial Africa, the non-cannibal tribes do not intermarry with the cannibals;' and Barrow states that the Hottentots always marry within their own Kraal.4

Endogamy is the rule in India, and Dalton was gravely assured that when one of the daughters of Pddam demeans herself by marrying outside her own clan, the sun and the moon refuse to shine, and there is such a strife in the elements that all labor is suspended, till, by sacrifice and oblation, the stain is washed away.* The Ainos despise the Japanese, the Japanese them, and one village does not intermarry with another.* In ancient Wales, marriage had to be within the clan;7 and at Athens, we are told, if an alien lived with an Athenian woman, as her husband, he could be sold as a slave, and have his property confiscated.1

Marriage with foreign women was made unlawful for the Spartans; and at Rome, a marriage of a citizen with a woman who was not herself a Roman, or not a member of a community endowed with the privileges of connubium with Rome, was invalid, children born of such unions being illegitimate.* Marriage outside the gens was exceedingly rare;10 and in the three forms of the rite—conjarreatio, coemptio in manum, and usus— the powers of the first and third being involved in the second, namely, the placing of the woman within the authority (manus) of her husband, exogamy was always implied as a condition."