Thus, the heroes of De Sade's novels plan scenes of debauchery in which the shedding of blood is a necessary element of the fullest sexual enjoyment; and with the Hungarian, Countess Bathory, and Marshall Gilles de Rais, we find lust only satisfied with the death of innumerable victims.'

The intimate relation between whipping and sexual passion has already been noticed. Cases were cited in which castigation was the only means of producing tumescence in certain persons, and Carnevin corroborates the same fact in reference to animals, in his case of a Hungarian stallion in which application of the whip had always to be resorted to to produce erection. Notwithstanding Fern's attempt to associate this phenomenon with the tonic effect of pain on the nerves, I am of opinion that we must seek its explanation rather in psychic causes; in the same influence, for instance, which arouses fear and anger, both of which, being fundamental to courtship and rivalry, may very well enter even more largely into the stronger passion.

Jacob, "CuriositÚs de l'histoire de France," Paris, 1S58. H. EUis, loc. cit., m, 103.

Countess Bathory could only satisfy her lust by the death of her victim; and Marshall Gilles de Rais explained the horrible mutilations, murders and cruelties, lie had practised upon upward of eight hundred children, by the example of the Roman Osar«-He claimed to have been led into such sexual barbarity by reading in Suetonius the description of the savage orgies of Nero, Tiberius and Caracal]a, deriving therefrom the fiendish idea of locking children up in his castle, torturing, assaulting sexually, and afterward killing them, with feelings of the most inexpressible pleasure. The bodies of the children were burned, only the heads of a few particularly beautiful ones being preserved, possibly as souvenirs, 1 "Les Confessions," i, 1.

Indeed, many lines of evidence directly lead to such a conclusion. The whipping of one boy has frequently been known to excite the sexual passions of another; the phenomenon being one of such general observation among school-teachers as to constitute their strongest argument against correctional castigation in educational institutions. Rousseau gives us an account of the development of his own masochistic tendency, from witnessing the punishment of children;1 and in the sadistic cases recorded by Regis and Krafft-Ebing, similar causative factors are observed.

The latter writer tells of a neurasthenic girl who derived the greatest pleasure from being spanked by her father, and wThose subsequent longing was "to be the slave of a man, lying in fancy before hum, he putting one fiHit imon tiiv neck, while I kiss (he ether." ;