The following are extracts from the associations the patient made upon the dream. " I am afraid of heights. I remember when I was quite small climbing up a bank and becoming paralyzed by fear when I looked back and saw how far I had gone. It seemed like a sheer precipice. Only a short time ago I revisited the place and saw the bank; it was scarcely six feet in height, and not at all steep. I have never seen a bull-fight of any description; it was not an ordinary bull-fight. Bulls are strong, stupid brutes. I never cross a field that contains a bull." The estimate of the unconscious is that he is avoiding the bull-aspect of life; he hangs above it, in a perilous position, watching the dust of the fray below. The fish, or animal, in the tub of water produced a curious association. He remarked 5 " The women were very intent on getting the creature out. I do not know who they were. I was close above them, lying on the plank. They did not seem aware of my presence. It was like looking on at some secret rites —some Eleusinian mystery. I felt I ought not to look."
The change of symbolism that occurs when he falls and comes nearer to the ground might denote the relativity of the position. When he is perched high above the arena, it contains bulls at war with each other, a spectacle of force that he finds alarming ; when he descends, that scene changes and becomes more subtle and mysterious, and more denned. The bull, and the association with the Eleusinian mysteries, is not a mere accident. The search of the women who are so intent in the tub is for some " fish or animal" that is hiding there. They want this: it is demanded by them. It symbolizes a demand that the dreamer has to meet in life—a demand made by women.
The colour and aspect that life takes on, the symbol that it assumes, depends upon the individual's own attitude at that moment. The difficulty of the introvert is to attain a proper sense of ease amid the ordinary demands of life ; he may, for example, find the approach to women intensely embarrassing, because it involves, or tends to involve, a betrayal and expression of emotion, and this he fears instinctively. Were they inanimate objects, or slaves to be cowed with a whip, they would represent less danger to him; but as critical, independent, observant beings, to be* met in the open, he feels in their presence his great barrier to emotional expression. It is his ignorance of the ordinary feeling-language that embarrasses him. The feeling is, from the point of view of the unconscious, a weakness, which it will try to open out. In this case the dreamer is shown, in a deep piece of symbolism, a certain mystery and experiences embarrassment; and -this suggests at once that his conscious attitude in this respect is faulty and constitutes a source of weakness in his character. There is some adaptation to be made; he should be standing in the arena.
When interest accumulates within, round a problem, it over-sensitizes the mind in everything connected with the problem. The proper approach to all the main facts of life is a gradual one, a gradual extroversion. In this way a gradual process of becoming used to the thing is established, and nothing very remarkable is noticed. This type of approach is the familiar way of the normal extrovert, who, as has been said, is at home with life; the facts of existence grow insensibly upon him, so that he really does not know what they are—I mean, he could not easily write about them directly. He would portray them unconsciously, with ease, if he wrote a novel. They become a part of him, as unquestioned as his arms and legs. But the introvert has difficulty with each adaptation, and in part this difficulty comes of over-sensitiza-tion, caused by initial hesitation and questioning.
It must be noted that the dreamer, in his associations, connected the perilous position above the bullring with an incident of his childhood, when he became a victim of panic. On revisiting the scene, he realized how immensely his imagination had exaggerated the danger. Working from this association of danger, it will be seen that the unconscious is putting the idea of exaggeration into the dream. The situation above the bullring causes fear: this fear reminds him of the fear experienced in a certain incident of childhood. He now realizes the fear was exaggerated; therefore the fear he feels concerning the bullring is exaggerated; it is due to his imagination. When he had grown up and gained experience, the precipice of his childhood became a six-foot slope. The unconscious here suggests the same succession in experience.
The problems peculiar to the introvert give rise to dreams that bear a certain stamp about them which makes it possible to deduce the type of psychology without knowing the dreamer. The same thing may be said with extrovert dreams. Typical cases of each class form a kind of antithesis ; the unconscious takes up opposite attitudes ; in the extrovert, as already mentioned, it has a tendency to curtail activity ; in the introvert it urges activity. In the above case, the symbolism suggests that the recipient of the dream was an introvert. The bull symbol, which occurs frequently in dreams, and allies itself closely with introvert psychology, represents something which has found its expression under this form in many phases of human history.
The first general associations given by the dreamer have already been recorded. The bulls in the arena, from which his position is so aloof and perilous, represent the " strong stupid " side of life, and this he fears. We have seen that it is necessary, in the investigation of any dream, to pay special attention to the circumstances under which the dream has arisen, that is to say, to those immediate incidents of the day that the dreamer has experienced. A dream has usually a special and a general application. The special application arises out of the immediate situation. The general application arises out of the larger trend of affairs in the dreamer's life.