Careful inspection of the abdomen seldom fails to reveal important information, while not infrequently the facts which it imparts are of the utmost possible value. In order to obtain the best results the patient should lie upon his back with the occiput in contact with the mattress and the light thrown upon the body from the side opposite to the observer. The mouth should be open, and he should be directed to breathe easily and fully. No talking ought to be allowed, and no attempt should be made to raise the head, since it produces a contraction of the abdominal muscles, which greatly alters the appearance of the parts. In every case attention should be directed to the following points : (a) The general shape of the abdomen, (b) the position and size of the stomach, (c) the existence of visible peristalsis, (d) the presence of a tumour, (e) dilatation of the superficial veins, (f) retraction of the navel.