Owing to the pressure it exerts upon the inferior vena cava, a dilated stomach is frequently accompanied by enlargement of the superficial veins of the abdomen. As a rule the condition is symmetrical and chiefly affects the superficial epigastric and superficial circumflex iliac veins, which may be traced upwards along the sides of the abdomen and chest, where they form numerous anastomoses with the branches of the intercostal, internal mammary and superior epigastric veins. In other cases all the superficial venules of the lower abdomen, the back and upper parts of the thighs are uniformly dilated.
(f) Retraction of the Navel ensues from cancerous infiltration of the round ligament or of the subperitoneal tissue immediately subjacent to it, and is, consequently, a sign of considerable importance. Occasionally the umbilicus exhibits superficial excoriation, or one or two nodules of new growth may be detected in the subcutaneous tissue in its vicinity.