Where Found.—Their Classification— Quality and Durability of their Wood.—Their Ornamental and other Uses.—European Linden.— Its Principal Uses and Growth.—White Linden.—Description of Leaf.—Range of Growth.—A Specified Variety.—Buffalo Berry.— Its Attainable Height and Deportment.—How Propagated.—Its Esteemed Quality and Relative Resemblance.—Quality and Usefulness of its Fruit.—Manner of Planting for Fruit Production.—Japan Sophora.—Its Nativity.—How best Propagated.—Quality of its Wood and for What Used.—Soil Favorable to its Thrift.—Sassafras.—Its Domestic Uses.—Properties and Uses of its Wood.— How Propagated.—Its Ornamental Advantages.

The lindens are found in the Northern and Middle States, along the Alleghany Mountains, and in the Mississippi Valley. These trees may be classed with those that cannot be used for lumber until they have arrived at quite a large size. It takes the place of the pine for a great many things, its wood being soft and light, and of very little durability; it is much used as an ornamental tree. The inner bark of the tree is separated from the rough outer bark by saturation, and is much used as a twine by gardeners, etc.

European Linden

The principal use of this tree is the manufacture of " bass matting," which is imported in quantity from Europe. It is quite a large tree, and well worthy of cultivation as a shade-tree. It sheds its leaves quite early in the autumn.

White Linden

The leaves of this tree are smooth, bright green above, and silvery underneath. It is not found as far north as many of its brothers, nor is it as large a tree. The common weeping linden of our nurseries is of this species.

Buffalo Berry

This tree grows to a height of from twenty to thirty feet. It is propagated from the seed or by suckers. It is esteemed more for its fruit than for its lumber; it much resembles the buckthorn, and I doubt not would make an equally good hedge; its fruit is manufactured into pies, tarts, preserves, and a great many household delicacies. The trees are strictly diœceous, and both sexes must be planted in close proximity to obtain fruit.

Japan Sophora

This tree is a native of Japan. It is best propagated by layers or from the seed. Little is known of this tree in this country excepting that it is hard, compact, and fit for ornamental work. It does not thrive in Illinois prairie-soil, but under favorable auspices is said to grow quite rapidly farther south.


This tree is surely the old woman's friend. Who has not gone to some old village grandmother and been dosed with sassafras-tea, much to the edification of the old lady, and then swore like a pirate or looked helplessly down one's nose and waited for further developments ? It is found as a shrub or tree of some small size. The bark, of late, has much gone out of date as a medicine.

Bedsteads made of sassafras-wood are never infested with vermin. The wood is not very strong, but fine, close-grained, and fit for cabinet-work. It is propagated by suckers or by seed.

It is a handsome, ornamental tree, and I would recommend its culture around some of the beautiful homesteads scattered about the country that have a great many less ornamental trees than the sassafras, and whose appearance would be much benefited by it.