This section is from the book "Tree Planting For Timber And Fuel", by C. B. Mcnaughton.
In planting permanently the opportunity of an overcast and cloudy day should be taken and care should be observed that the root systems of the young transplants are not unnecessarily exposed as in a dry atmosphere such as obtains in Oudtshoorn, very little exposure would be sufficient to cause damage. It is always best to plant with the ball of earth which encloses the roots of the plants. This can be easily obtained by taking out each transplant from the transplant box with a small gardener's trowel. In cases of plants which cannot be treated this way it is found a good practice to puddle the roots as soon as the plant is moved from the nursery bed or taken from the packing in which it has been transported. A good puddle is made by mixing equal parts of fresh cowdung and loam with sufficient water to reduce the mixture to a good sticky consistency. The roots are dipped into this mixture and then heeled into a good fine soil which adhering to the dung mixture furnishes a protective envelope for the tender rootlets. Transplants thus treated can be far more safely handled later when placing out permanently.
This may conclude the remarks under this head for in planting out permanently the site, degree of cultivation, method of planting, planting distance, etc. etc, will depend on the requirements of the species treated. Generally cultivation as for an ordinary cereal crop, pit planting (20 inches by 20 inches by 15 inches) and six feet by six feet apart will be the ordinary lines followed.