This section is from the book "Queen's Of Cuisine", by Martha Logan. Also available from Amazon: Queens of Cuisine.
1 square (1 ounce) unsweetened chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa.
1 cup sifted all-purpose flour = 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons sifted cake flour.
1 cup sifted cake flour = 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour.
2 tablespoons flour (for thickening) = 1 tablespoon cornstarch.
1 cup egg whites = 8 to 10 egg whites 1 cup egg yolks = 12 to 14 egg yolks.
1 cup sweet milk = 1 cup sour milk plus 1 teaspoon soda.
1 cup sour milk = l tablespoon vinegar and fill cup with sweet milk.
1 teaspoon baking powder (for leavening) = 1/4 teaspoon soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar.
Note: Variations in gluten content of brands of allpurpose flours make it impractical to make adjustments or substitutions to recipes. So, follow directions in recipe.
If a soft wheat pastry or cake flour is used, an adjustment must be made in amount of shortening and water.
If a self-rising flour is used omit salt and baking powder.