Food materials are mixed by one of three methods; stirring, beating or folding.
Stirring is accomplished by a rotary motion of the arm.
Beating is a rapid rotary movement of the forearm by which the ingredients are turned over and over, the ladle or spoon touching the bottom of the utensil at the end of each stroke made by the hand. This movement is for the purpose of incorporating air.
Folding is accomplished by means of a spoon or an egg whip. The spoon or whip is first put down vertically throtrgh the materials (this process is sometimes known as cutting), then is brought up again through the materials, freed by gently shaking and then put down again, the whole process being repeated several times, or until the materials are well blended. This method is used where it is desirable to prevent the escape of air previously incorporated by beating.