The long bones, i.e., the bones of the limbs, are those commonly broken, but short, flat and irregular bones are frequently injured.

Broken back may happen when a dog is run over, but this is more liable to happen to a non-sporting dog, or rather to such as are kept in the neighbourhood of busy thoroughfares.

A senseless puppy sometimes meets with an accident of this class.

A dislocation is an injury whereby the bone is forced out of its place.

The short bones of the feet are often broken, and their repair is usually an easy one, though, as in the case of the other fractures, complicated, if a wound be present.

Fractures of the skull are not common injuries amongst dogs, and when they do occur, call for special skill in treatment.

If the broken ends of a bone are not accurately adjusted, a deformed, or false, union results, more or less spoiling the utility of the animal.

As a rule, considerable swelling comes on after fracture of the long bones, especially of the forearm, therefore an effort must be made to subdue this by bathing freely with warm water.

Well-padded splints should be used—if applicable— and applied directly to the skin, being retained in position by a bandage.

If the bandage is too tightly applied, the circulation to the part will be interfered with, probably destroying the vitality of it. Coldness and numbness are the chief signs of this.

Leather, wood, gutta-percha, starch, egg and gum, etc., are all used as supports to a broken limb. A plaster bandage is very useful.

In the case of a valuable dog, it is advisable to consult a qualified veterinary practitioner.

Rest is of course an indispensable factor in the treatment of both fractures and dislocations.

When a dislocation accompanies a fracture, or wound and fracture, at a joint, the animal should be destroyed, as the results of surgery under these conditions is not often satisfactory.