Fifty Common Forest Trees Of Eastern North America. White Pine, Weymouth Pine (Pinus Strobus)

A NOBLE evergreen tree, up to 175 feet high. The lumberman's prize. Its leaves are in bunches of 5, and are 3 to 5 inches long; cones 4 to 8 inches long. Wood pale, soft, straight-grained, easily split.

Warps and checks less than any other of our timbers.

Warps and checks less than any other of our timbers. A cubic foot weighs 24 lbs. (a cubic foot of water weighs 63 lbs.). Minn. & Man. to Nova Scotia and Penna.

Red Pine, Canadian Pine, Norway Pine (Pinus Resinosa)

Evergreen; somewhat less than the White Pine, with leaves 4 to 6 inches long, in bunches of 2, cones 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long. Wood darker, harder and heavier. A cubic foot weighs 30 lbs. Range as above.

Red Pine Canadian Pine Norway Pine Pinus Resinosa 263

Long Leaved Pine, Georgia Pine, Southern Pine, Yellow Pine, Hard Pine (Pinus Palustris)

A fine tree, up to 100 feet high; evergreen; found in great forests in the Southern States; it supplies much of our lumber now; and most of our turpentine, tar and rosin. Wood strong and hard, a cubic foot weighs 44 lbs. Its leaves are 10 to 16 inches long, and are in bunches of 3's; cones, 6 to 10 inches long. Range, Va. to La. & Fla.

Tamarack, Larch Or Hackmatack (Larix Laricina)

A tall, straight, tree of the northern swamps yet often found flourishing on dry hillsides. One of the few conifers that shed all their leaves each fall. Leaves 1/2 to 1 inch long; cones 1/2 to 3/4 inch. Wood very resinous heavy and hard, "a hard, soft wood" very durable as posts, in Manitoba I have seen tamarack fence posts unchanged after twenty years' wear. It is excellent for firewood, and makes good sticks for a rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot weighs 39 lbs. Found north nearly to the limit of trees; south to northern New Jersey and Minnesota.

White Spruce (Picea Canadensis)

Evergreen; 60 to 70 or even 150 feet high. Leaves 1/2 to 3/4 inch long; cones 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, are at the tips of the branches and deciduous; the twigs smooth. Wood white, light, soft, weak, straight-grained, not durable; a cubic foot weighs 25 lbs. Its roots afford the wattap or cordage for canoe-building and camp use generally. North to the limit of trees east of Rockies, south to Dakota, Wis. & Maine.

White Spruce Picea Canadensis 264

Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis)

Evergreen; 60 to 70 feet high; occasionally 100; wood pale, soft, coarse, splintery, not durable. A cubic foot weighs 26 lbs. Bark full of tannin. Leaves 1/2 to 3/4 inch long: cones about the same. Its knots are so hard that they quickly turn the edge of an axe or gap it as a stone might; these are probably the hardest vegetable growth in our woods. Wis. to Nova Scotia and south on the mts. to Georgia.

Hemlock Tsuga Canadensis 265

Balsam Tree Or Canada Balsam (Abies Balsamea)

Evergreen; famous for the blisters on its trunk, yielding Canada balsam which makes a woodman's plaster for cuts or a waterproof cement; and for the exquisite odor of its boughs, which also supply the woodmen's ideal bed. Its flat leafage is distinctive. Wood pale, weak, soft, perishable. A cubic foot weighs 24 lbs. N. Alberta to Newf. and south to Va.

Balsam.

Balsam.

Bald Cypress (Taxodium Distichum)

A fine forest tree, up to 150 feet, with thin leaves somewhat like those of Hemlock, half an inch to an inch long; cones rounded about an inch through. Sheds its leaves each fall so is "bald" in winter, noted for the knees or up-bent roots that it develops when growing in water. Timber soft, weak, but durable and valuable; a cubic foot weighs 27 lbs. In low wet country of Mississippi Valley & S. E. coast.

Arbor VitŠ Or White Cedar (Thuya Occidentalis)

Evergreen; 50 to 60 feet high. Wood soft, brittle, coarse-grained, extremely durable as posts; fragrant and very light (the lightest on our list). Makes good sticks for rubbing-stick fire. A cubic foot weighs only 20 lbs.

Arbor Vit Or White Cedar Thuya Occidentalis 267Arbor Vit Or White Cedar Thuya Occidentalis 268

The scale-like leaves are about 6 to 8 to the inch, the cones half an inch long or less. Man. to Nova Scotia, and Penna; south on mts. to N. C.

Black Willow (Salix Nigra)

The common Willow of stream-banks, usually 20 to 40 feet high, sometimes 100. Bark nearly black. Its long, narrow, yellow-green shining leaves are sufficiently distinctive. A decoction of Willow bark and roots is said to be the best known substitute for quinine. Noted for early leafing and late shedding; leaves 3 to 6 inches long. Wood pale, weak, soft, close-grained; a cubic foot weighs 28 lbs. Man. to Nova Scotia and south to Gulf.

Black Willow Salix Nigra 269

Quaking Asp, Quiver Leaf, Aspen Poplar Or Popple (Populus Tremuloides)

A small forest tree, but occasionally 100 feet high. Readily known by its smooth bark, of a light green or whitish color. The wood is pale, soft, close-grained, weak, perishable, and light. A cubic foot weighs 25 lbs. Good only for paper pulp, but burns well, when seasoned. When green it is so heavy and soggy that it lasts for days as a fire cheek or back-log. Leaves 1 1/2 to 2 inches long. Can. and No. States.

Quaking Asp Quiver Leaf Aspen Poplar Or Popple Pop 270