The spinal cord, 16 to 18 inches.
The trachea, 4 1/2 inches.
The right bronchus, 1 inch.
The left bronchus, 1 1/2 to 2 inches.
The pharynx, 4 1/2 inches.
The oesophagus, 9 to 10 inches.*
Capacity, about 2 pints.
Length, 10 inches.
Width, 4 to 5 inches. Duodenum, 8 to 10 inches. Bile-duct, 3 inches. Small intestine, 23 feet.
Jejunum, upper two-fifths.
Ileum, lower three-fifths. Appendix, 3 to 4 inches. Caecum, 2 1/2 inches. Ascending colon, 8 inches. Transverse colon, 20 inches. Descending colon, 4 to 6 inches.
* The distance from the teeth to the cardiac orifice of the stomach is about 16 to 17 inches.
Iliac colon, 5 to 6 inches.
Pelvic colon, 16 to 18 inches.
Rectum, 5 to 6 inches.
Anal canal, 1 to 1 1/2 inches.
Crural canal, 1/2 inch.
Inguinal canal, 1 1/2 inches.
Receptaculum chyli, 1 to 2 inches.
Thoracic duct, 16 to 18 inches.
Kidney, 4 1/2 inches by 2 1/2 inches by 1 1/2 inches
Ureter, 10 inches.
Male urethra, 8 to 10 inches.
Prostatic, 1 to 1 1/2 inches.
Membranous, anterior wall, 3/4 inch. ,, posterior wall, 1/2 inch.
Spongy and penile, 6 to 8 inches. Testis, 1 1/2 inches by 1 inch by 3/4 inch. Seminiferous tubules, 2 to 3 feet. Canal of the epididymis, 19 to 20 feet. Vas deferens, 16 to 18 inches. Ovary, 1 inch by 1/2 inch. Fallopian tubes, 4 to 4 1/2 inches. Uterus, 3 inches by 2 inches by 1 inch. Vagina, anterior wall, 3 inches.
,, posterior wall, 4 inches. Female urethra, 1 to 1 1/2 inches
The brain : Male, 50 ounces ; female, 45 ounces.
The lungs: Together, 42 ounces; right, 22 ounces; left, 20 ounces.
The heart : Male, 10 to 12 ounces; female, 8 to 10 ounces.
The liver, 50 to 60 ounces.
The kidneys, 4 1/2 ounces.
The suprarenals, 1 to 2 drachms.
The prostate, 6 drachms.
The testis, 6 to 8 drachms.
The ovary, 1 to 2 drachms.
The spinal cord, 1 1/2 ounces.
The pancreas, 2 to 4 ounces.
The spleen, 7 ounces.
Certain epiphyses and epiphysial lines have been alluded to in the text, and the following table, compiled from dray's "Anatomy," has consequently been appended '
1 centre for the shaft (in membrane) in the fourth to fifth week (i.u.l.).*
1 centre for the sternal end in the eighteenth to twentieth year.
Union between the two in the twenty-fifth year.
1 centre for the body in the eighth week (i.u.l). i centre for the coracoid process in the first year.
1 centre for the base of the coracoid process
between the fifteenth v. and eighteenth years.
2 centres for the acromial process
1 centre for the vertebral border
1 centre for the inferior angle
1 centre for the shaft in the eighth week (i.u.l.).
1 centre for the head in the first year,
1 centre for the great tuberosity in the thira year.
1 centre for the small tuberosity in the fourth year.
Head and tuberosities unite together in the fifth year and with the shaft in the twentieth year, i centre for the internal condyle in the fifth year. I centre for the trochlear in the twelfth year. I centre for the capitellum in the second year. I centre for the external condyle in the thirteenth year. The last three unite together to form an epiphysis, which unites with the shaft in the seventeenth year, the internal condyle joining separately in the eighteenth year.
1 centre for the shaft of the radius in the eighth week (i.u.l.).
1 centre for the shaft of the ulna in the eighth week (i.u.1.).
• i.u-l = intra uterine life.
1 centre for the lower end of the radius in the second year —union at twenty.
1 centre for the lower end of the ulna in the fourth year— union at twenty.
1 centre for the upper end of the radius in the fifth year-union at sixteen.
1 centre for the upper end of the ulna in the tenth year— union at sixteen. The carpus:
All the bones are cartilaginous at birth. The first centre of ossification appears in the os magnum and the last in the pisiform. The metacarpus and phalanges:
1 centre for the shaft of the metacarpal and the shaft of the phalanx in the eighth week (i.u.l.). 1 centre for the head of the metacarpal bone and the base of the phalanx in the third year.
Union between diaphyses and epiphyses in the twentieth year.
The thumb metacarpal is an exception to the rule, a well-marked epiphysis always appearing at the base. This bone, therefore, resembles a phalanx in its mode of ossification, though an epiphysis is not infrequently seen at the head of the bone also. The Lower Extremity : The os innominatum:
Three main primary centres for ilium, ischium, and pubis, appearing respectively in the second, third, and fourth months (i.u.l.). The three parts of the bone are separated at first by the Y-shaped acetabular cartilage.
Five secondary centres appear about puberty for the crest, symphysis pubis, anterior inferior iliac spine, ischial tuberosity, and the acetabular cartilage. These unite at about the twenty-fifth year. The femur:
1 centre for the shaft in the fifth week (i.u.l.).
l centre for the lower end in the ninth month (i.u.l.)— union with shaft in the twentieth year. 1 centre for the head in the first year—union with shaft in the eighteenth year. 1 centre for the great trochanter in the fourth year, 1 centre for the small trochanter in the fourteenth year. The patella :
1 centre in the third year.