A correct schema of cultivated Bexual crime would probably be a triangle, two sides of which are bad habits and deficient moral sense, converging into degeneracy, and the base line I would unhesitatingly pronounce, alcohol. The close relation of alcoholism to sexual crime, as well as to certain forms of insanity, is well shown in the writings of the great alienist and neurologist, Krafft-Ebing. Drunkenness is artificial. It begins with slight maniacal excitation. Thoughts flow lucidly; the quiet become loquacious; the modest bold; there is need of muscular activity; the emotions are manifested in laughing, singing, dancing. jEsthetic ideas and moral impulses are lost sight of; the weak side of the individual comes to the surface; his secrets are revealed; he is dogmatical, cynical, dangerous; "he wants to create a sensation; insists that he is not drunk, just as-the insane insist on their sanity;" and in this condition, the inhibiting restraint of the will being withdrawn, innate tendencies which, under normal conditions, might have remained in abeyance for a lifetime, are permitted to grow and exercise their sway; boys fall into idleness, men into crime, and girls into prostitution. Alcoholic intoxication does not make better nor worse the sentiments of a man; but it lets loose whatever is in him; and we all know what that would mean in any society." The alcoholic is insane because he drinks; the dipsomaniac drinks because he is insane ("L'Alcoolisme," Monin, Paris, 1889, p. 308.) The alcoholic is vicious and degraded, the dipsomaniac is insane and diseased. Therefore it is that, in my triangular schema of cultivated sexual crime, I make alcohol the base line. If we eliminate a large number of moral defections from this cause in society today, both sexual and other—those who could reform if they would try—a large number yet remains on whom social, educational, or religious influences have no effect. For these there is no help except forced restraint, in special asylums, where they can have work, air and suitable amusement; and the revenue from liquor licenses, in each city, ought in be used for their support. (See, on this subject, " The Public and the Doctor in Relation to the Dipsomaniac," Dr. Daniel Clark, Toronto, 1888; "Die Trunksucht und ihre Abwehr," Dr, A. von Baer, Wien und Leipzig, 1890; "L'Alcoolisme, sue consequenze morali e sue cause," Dr. N. Colajanni, Catania, 1887; and "Etude Medico-Legale but L'Alcoholism," Dr. V. Vetault, Paris, 18S7.)
Sexual criminals, belonging to the occipital class, are criminals of impulse alone. The negro kills with little or no premeditation; always obeys his sexual appetite; is seldom guilty of infanticide, or any atrocious suppression of progeny; makes no provision for the future; has few needs, and is incapable of planning elaborate enterprises, either business or crimirial. And the negro, while largely identified with sexual crime, is a (air type of the entire class of criminals.1
As to the class itself, while few anomalies, or deviations from the normal, have been found in the brains of undiseased sexual criminals, the following points, with respect to their craniology may be noted: There appears to be a more frequent persistence of the metopic, or frontal median, suture; effacement, more or less complete, of the parietal, or parietooccipital sutures; the notched sutures are the most simple; there is a notable frequency of the Wormian bones in the regions of the median posterior fontanelle; and also in the lateral posterior fontanelles; there is considerable development of the superciliary ridges, with effacement, or even frequent depression, of the intermediary protuberance, and abnormal development of the mastoid apophyses. There is also, as a rule, backward direction of the plane of occipital depression; left-handedness is common; the general sensibility is low; sensibility to pain, and to disagreeable mental impressions, is equally so; which explains the want of pity, cruelty, and general selfishness of most sexual criminals; but more particularly of sadists, violators, and lust-murderers.
Comparing the above with the physiognomonic characteristics, and cranial measurements, of the recidivistic class of criminals, generally, it will be seen that there are many distmguishing differences. In the latter, there is usually small cranial development; receding forehead; absence of beard (which is commonly heavy in the sexualist); abundance of hair,* dull eyes (the reverse with sadists, exhibitionists and homosexualists); thick lips; large jaws, and general physical coarseness. (Sexual criminals are, as a rule, handsome, soft and refined looking.) Educated men, among other classes of criminals are rare; among sexual criminals they are strikingly common; a point exceedingly important for the jurist to remember, when the public, and the press, take up the old stereotyped cry, in reference to an alleged criminal: "What! that man commit an assault upon a little girl? So gentlemanly, so refined—I don't believe it."
1 "Le Crime en Pays Creoles," Corre, Paris, 1889. I am pleased to find myself in accord with the above distinguished medico-legalist as to negro sexuality; Dr. Com explicitly stating, in the work above quoted, that it is influenced far more by the black man's social condition than by any racial factor.