The manipulations in the manufacture of a wine-glass will now be described. A common mule wine-glass is formed from three distinct pieces of glass: (a) the bowl; (b) the leg; (c) the foot.
A wine " shop," or " chair," consists of three men; a " workman," whose main work consists of finishing the wine-glass; a " servitor," who forms or shapes the bulb; a " foot maker," who gathers and mar vers the glass; and a boy who carries away and cleans the blow-irons.
The " foot maker " of the " chair " gathers on the end of a blcwing-iron sufficient glass to form a bowl. This is then shaped on a marver until the required shape is obtained. The footmaker then blows this out to a hollow bulb similar in size to the pattern to which he is working. When the bulb leaves the footmaker it is the shape of the bowl of the wine-glass.
This is then handed over to the servitor, who drops a small piece of hot glass on to the end of the bulb, and heats the whole by holding it in the furnace. This serves to make the joint of the two pieces perfect. The servitor next proceeds to draw out the leg from the small piece of glass at the end of the bulb, leaving a button of glass at the end of the leg. The servitor then dips the end of the leg into the molten glass within the pot and gathers on sufficient glass to form a foot. He spreads this portion of the glass out to the required shape and size with a pair of wooden clappers, with which he squeezes the hot glass to form the foot.
The servitor has now done his part of the work, and the glass is handed to the workman. It is then cracked off, and the foot caught by a spring clip arrangement attached to a pontil, called a " gadget." The workman now re-heats or melts the top edge of the glass by holding it within the furnace, and when it is hot he cuts off the surplus glass with a pair of shears. A line is chalked on at the correct distance from the foot, and guides the workman in cutting the glass to the proper height. He then melts the top again and opens it out with his spring tool to the required shape, after which the glass is taken to the annealing lehr by the boy, to be annealed.
Other forms of wine-glasses are made, and various methods are adopted, according to the district and class of workmen.
For instance, the method of making the above common mule wine-glass varies in different districts. Instead of gathering the metal for the foot upon the leg of the glass, the workman may drop a piece of hot glass, which has been gathered by the servitor, on to the button at the end of the leg, and by means of a pair of wood clappers spread the hot glass to form the foot.
In another method of making a wine-glass, the stem or leg is drawn out from the body of the bulb by pinching down a knob at the end of the glass. The servitor draws the leg out of this knob and knocks off the extreme end. Meanwhile, the footmaker has been preparing a foot, gathering a small portion of metal on a blow-iron and blowing it out and shaping it into a double globule. The end globule forms the foot and the second merely acts as a support. The footmaker takes these globules, and the servitor sticks them on to the drawn stem of the wine whilst it is hot; the blow-iron holding the globules is knocked away, leaving them adhering to the leg of the wine-glass. The footmaker then knocks off the second globule at the line between the two and, re-heating the bulb at the foot of the glass, opens and widens the edges out. The glass then goes to the workman to be finished in the same way as the common mule wine-glass.