Ehrlich and Guttmann were induced to try this remedy on account of the election shown by the malarial parasites for it in the staining of preparations. On administration no evident staining of the parasites in the circulation takes place (Laveran).
Although methylene blue has not yet proved itself a positive antimalaricum, it may be recommended for trial in case quinin fails or is for any reason contraindicated.
The same may be said of sodium salicylate, which has been sometimes successful. Vincenzi reports a case of quartan lasting nine months which eventually yielded to it. Quinin could not be employed on account of quinin hemoglobinuria.
Arsenious acid has also been recommended (Boudin). It is employed at present in the treatment of the cachexia and gives excellent results.
Recently Du Cazal has come forward for Boudin's method. He administers, in rebellious fevers, 50 gm. of the sol. Boudin (acid, arsenios., 0.05; water, 500) pro die, in doses of 20 drops in water every fifteen minutes. After three to five days this dose is exhibited every half hour continually for about two weeks. Boudin himself gives 100 to 300 gm. pro die; after cessation of the fever, 100 gm. on the clays of the paroxysm.
Subcutaneous injections of bichlorid of mercury have been recently recommended by Feletti for obstinately recurring cases.
Tannic acid has been lauded by Alix. It is administered on an empty stomach in increasing doses of 1 to 4 gm. in water pro die. According to Alix, this was successful in four cases in which quinin failed.
Tincture of eucalyptus globulus is claimed to be sometimes effective. It is employed especially in chronic cases, and then particularly for the neuralgic pains. Daily dose, two to four teaspoonsful.
Pambotano has of late been praised by Valude. It is obtained from the bark of a small leguminous plant-Calliandra houstoni- growing wild in Mexico, but cultivated as an ornamental plant in England. According to Valude, 70 gm. of the bark in the case of adults, 35 gm. in the case of children under twelve years, are added to a liter of water, boiled to 500 gm., and filtered. The color of the decoction is blood red. This amount is divided into four portions and given warm with a little sugar. Villejean was unable to demonstrate an alkaloid in the bark. Valude treated eight cases with success. As associated effects, nausea and vomiting may be mentioned. Crespin also recommended this drug.
Calaya, a leguminous plant, was employed by Maurage with success in nine cases in Madagascar and Tongking.
In addition to these remedies, the great majority of which are questionable, there are many others, like sulphurous acid, potassium iodid, alum, carbolic acid, strychnin, helianthus, spiders, and cobwebs, the value of which is nil.
The remedial treatment of malaria before the introduction of quinin is of considerable interest. A full account is found in Morton, which merits particular attention on account of the critical acumen of the author. Morton praises antimonium diaphoreticum, sal. absynthii, and a mixture composed of the following bitters: Folia matricarise, carduus benedict., comar. absynthii summit., centaur, min. flor., flor. chamcemel., to which were added semin. card, benedict, citr. and sal. absynthii. He apparently obtained good results, especially from antimonium diaphoreticum.
Finally, in malarial regions, the inhabitants make use of certain household remedies, to which even less effect can be attributed. The most commonly used are decoctions of lemons, different kinds of pepper, especially mixed with brandy, etc.
Attempts have been made to treat acute malaria by hydrotherapy. Currie stated that he had several times prevented the recurrence of a paroxysm by douching the region of the spleen with cold water. Priessnitz combated intermittent fever by cold water internally, cold frictions during the chill, frictions in a half bath during the hot stage, and wet packs during the interval. The greatest enthusiast for the hydrotherapeutic treatment of malaria was Fleury. He gave, one to two hours before the paroxysm, a general filiform douche of 12° to 14° C. (54°-57° F.), and simultaneously a strong filiform douche 3 cm. in diameter over the spleen, and claims to have obtained excellent results. Subsequent experiments proved also encouraging. Still, at the present d&y we can consider all attempts to replace quinin by hydrotherapy as futile; though it is not to be rejected as a symptomatic auxiliary, but, on the contrary, recommended especially in cases with hyperthermia, nervous depression, algor, etc., in which it acts as in other acute infectious diseases.