Recidivation of the criminal, notwithstanding the recent refutation of many of Lombroso's deductions, is apparently the rule; reformation the exception. The sexual criminal is a being unadapted to his present surroundings. He is a monster; as much so as a two-headed man; presenting traits and characters of racial regression; but, while atavistic perversity will probably continue to prevail against the influences of the very best environments, the continual hammering of educational influences furnishes at least a partial remedy, and the best hope for the future at present discernible.1

While it is a common assertion of many writers that education has Ut tie influence in decreasing crime (an opinion which Biichner, Beccaria and D'Olivecrona absolutely contradict), it certainly, at least, modifies it. Within the last fifty years the stealing of horses and grain has diminished, while that of jewels and money has vtermued. Crimes against property are less frequent than crimes against the person; those against chastity being conditioned, without doubt, by the emancipation of the mind, previously noted, from primitive social conventions. While, according to Proal, "instruction is not sufficient to repress crime" ("Le Crime et la peine," Paris, 1892), Victor Hugo liked to say that "he who opens a school closes a prison." At least we do know that literary and philosophical works do far more guo<l than scientific ones, along these lines, (l'i!.' Nicolay, "Lea enfants mal Úleves," Paris, 1891.)