In the last article I considered the nature of emotions and their types as enunciated in Geeta. I also learned about the methods of studies I also enumerated in brief some ways to promote emotional health.

In this article I will learn more about the physiology of emotions and holistic ways to promote emotional health -and thereby performance in day to day life.

The emotional experience and expression in general, are associated with: a) Passage of impulses to and from different parte of brain b) Release of neurotransmitters at the nerve endings, c) Combination of these neurotransmitters with receptor molecules present on another neuron, d) Release of catecholamines and peptide hormones at nerve endings of autonomic and enteric nervous systems.

e) Release of several hormones and their combination with receptor molecules present in the target gland cells or target tissues cells f) Variations in the metabolism as well.

The emotions seem to correspond with the concepts viz MANOMAYA KOSHA, though they are also intricately and inseparably associated with ANNAMAYA, PRANAMAYA, VUNYANAMAYA and ANANDAMAYA KOSHA (KOSHA can be considered to be layers of existence with vast range with respect to subtlety and size)

This is why promotion of emotional health and performance (which is a part of holistic health) demands a real holistic approach and not simple drug treatment or simplistic counseling Simple food fads or so called workshops cannot help restore emotional health substantially Neither suppression of individual aspirations nor uncontrolled fulfillment of individual desires can usher in emotional health.

Keeping this in mmd, I will try to understand PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY of emotions.

Physiologic Anatomy

1) Olfactory brain i.e. temporal lobe cortex lying on medial surface of cerebral cortex called orbitofrontal and orb ltoinsular region of temporal lobe cortex In short, structures lying at the hilum of the cerebral hemispheres on its medial side.

Olfactory areas play a role in emotions Dogs have tremendous sense of smell It never forgets it. This is associated with the loyalty and love for the master Pheromones are substances which are secreted in animals Animals recognize and get attracted to the substances secreted by opposite sex even from a great distance.

In hum an beings sense of smell is associated with pleasant or unpleasant feelings present in sexual attraction This has a lot of significance in terms of pleasant or unpleasant memories which last long. In fact this phenomenon is used in the manufacture of some sex specific perfumes as 111 as decoration of honey moon room with fragrant flowers!

With respect to food, taste and smell can cause vomiting and sense of disgust thus showing association of gastrointestinal system and emotions Feeding and satiety are coupled with pleasant emotions and lack of food or enforced dirty food is associated with unpleasant ones.

Association of gastrointestinal system, emotions and autonomic nervous system is proved by the fact that stimulation of different regions in limbic system may cause sympathetic or parasympathetic response.

Thus stimulation of orbitofrontal region causes increase in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate [HR] due to sympathetic effect and increase in motility and secretions m gasbrointestinal tract [GIT) due to parasympathetic effect. Stimulation of temporal region causes fall in blood pressure [BP] and fall in heart rate [HR] due to parasympathetic effect and fall in motility and fall in secretions due to sympathetic effect in GIT.

Hence die expression 'my heart is bleeding" and not my brain is bleeding. To express emotional suppression I say "I am suffocated" and not 'my brain is suppressed" To express jealousy I say 'he has heart bum" and not 'brain bum" To express courage I say he has 'guts" and not 'he has thoughts of bravery")

2) Temporal lobe also is involved in emotions. Temporal means related to time. With increasing age [passage of time] the graying of hair starts in front of ears. The bones, muscles as HI as part of brain in this area are therefore called TEMPORAL. Apart from other structures optic radiations pass through the temporal lobe.

It receives afferent; via inferior collicuh (inferior corpora quadrigemina) and medial geniculate bodies (part of thalamus) from COCHLEA, via olfactory tracts from OLFACTORY NEUROEHTHELIUM and via fornix ("fornix" means arch] from MAMILLARY BODIES and probably from VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS on its posterior aspect where equilibrium sense is projected.

Efferents go to all areas from where afferents are received, thus forming reciprocal connections.

Temporal lobe is a primary center for hearing This auditosensory area is concerned with appreciation of intensity quality and pitch of the auditory sensation. It has point to point projections from cochlea. Next to this is auditopsychic area concerned with analysis and interpretation of auditory sensation and its integration into more complex perception Auditopsychic area is unilateral being present on left side in right handed persons. Equilbbratory sensation is projected in posterior part of first temporal convolution (gyrus).

Sense of smell is projected in uncus ["uncus" means hook] and hippocampus which are also parts of temporal lobe on medial aspect.

Lesions of temporal lobe in man are associated with: a) Attacks of auditory disorders eg. tinnitus i.e. sensation of ringing in ears in absence of any noise. This is subjective sensation of noise. Auditory hallucinations are imaginary hearing of some talk etc. in its absence Cochlea is bilaterally represented and hence unilateral cortical lesion is not associated with deafness b) Subject is in a dreamy state in which he may become destructive and violent and may even tear off his clothes He has no control over his activity and later describes as having been similar to dream.