In many instances manure is the cheapest source of plant food. Gardeners living near the cities often procure it at nominal prices. Under such conditions it would be unwise to make large expenditures for commercial fertilizers unless for special foods, such as nitrate of soda. Stable manures do not become availabJe so quickly as many forms of commercial fertilizers, although composting (86) is of great value in hastening decomposition. The following table (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 192, page 9) shows the relative composition and the value of the manure of various animals:

Analyses And Value Of A Ton Of Manure Of Various Animals

Water %

Nitrogen %

Phosphoric acid%

Potash %

Value a ton











0 532


























The commercial values as expressed in the last column of the above table vary greatly. It is probably seldom that horse manure from city livery stables is worth as much as $2 a ton for the actual supply of plant food.

78. Horse Manure

The bulk of manures purchased in the cities is horse manure. It is much drier than most other manures, looser in texture and acts more quickly than cow manure. It is practically the only kind of manure used in the making of hotbeds. Its decomposition in compost piles is very rapid and it must be carefully managed to prevent the loss of ammonia.

79. Cow Manure

Cow manure is highly valued by vegetable growers as a slow-acting manure. It is much slower in decomposition than horse manure and may be safely applied nearer the time of planting. Limited quantities can often be bought at reasonable prices in small towns.

80. Hog Manure

Hog Manure is also slow in action and generates very little heat in decomposing. It is valued by vegetable growers, although very small quantities are used. Some market gardeners near eastern cities have hogs fed mainly with the refuse from kitchens, and kept generally in cellars or covered sheds that are frequently very foul. Such practice is not to be commended from a sanitary point of view.

81. Sheep Manure

Sheep Manure is a hot manure, and when sufficiently moist decomposes very rapidly. Because of the fine texture, it is regarded as especially valuable for frame, greenhouse and open-ground crops that require a fine manure and a large amount of nitrogen. Onions are especially benefited by this manure.

82. Hen Manure

Hen Manure, of all the farm manures, is the most valuable for garden purposes. It contains a large percentage of potash and phosphoric acid and is especially rich in nitrogen. It has long been regarded the best fertilizer for onions as well as for all other garden crops requiring large amounts of nitrogen. The fine texture, when an absorbent has been used in sufficient quantity, makes it highly desirable for intensive systems of cropping.

At the Pennsylvania State College, manure was collected from May 1 till May 18 from the dropping boards under the roosts of 145 hens. During this period 75 pounds of 14 per cent available rock phosphate were scattered on the platforms daily to prevent the loss of nitrogen. The platforms were cleaned about twice a week. A barrel filled in 18 days contained 330 pounds of manure, including the rock phosphate. The manure was analyzed by the experiment station and found to contain 52.46 per cent of moisture, 1.85 per cent of nitrogen, 3.17 per cent of phosphoric acid and 0.31 per cent of potash. At the prices usually paid for fertilizers it was worth $9 a ton. The 145 hens would produce a ton in 110 days. These figures of course do not take into account the amount of manure dropped in the litter and in the yards, but they do show that it is well worth while taking care of the poultry manure. The added rock phosphate prevents the escape of ammonia and increases the value of the manure, since a liberal amount of phosphoric acid is required by all garden crops. The greatest objection to this plan of handling poultry manure is that it is too wet to spread very satisfactorily, but this trouble can be easily avoided by using sifted coal ashes, dry soil or other absorbents in addition to rock phosphate.