This species is little more than a large shrub. It has large, bright spikes of red flowers that have a very pleasant odor. It is found widely scattered through all the rich bottom lands east of the Mississippi. The hummingbirds seem, to enjoy these red flowers, as there are always scores and scores of them around the tree while in bloom. The bruised branches and bark of this tree are used in place of the fish-berry in order to stupefy the fish in small ponds; it has such an effect on them that they can easily be taken up in the hand. It also takes the place of soap in washing woollen cloth. The tree in the garden of Mr. Landreth, of Philadelphia, is the largest of its species known on this continent, being about twenty-five feet high, with a trunk three and three quarter feet in circumference. It is found more especially in the small valleys of Virginia, Arkansas, and Louisiana, and is said also to be a native of Japan and Brazil. Since its introduction from Brazil into Britain, in 1711, it has been extensively cultivated all through Europe as an ornamental tree. I am of the opinion that better results may be had from this tree by grafting, viz.: A plant of the dwarf species was engrafted on the common horse-chestnut-tree, and produced a beautiful, pendulous, low tree; and it is likely a little care and cultivation would unite the beauty of this tree with the size of some of its larger brethren of less beauty, and so be a gain to both.
* The introduction of this species of chestnut into, and its extensive growth and rapid thrift in, Ohio occasioned the peculiar appellation of "Buckeye " to that state; which name it still retains, and is familiarly applied to the state and its belongings.