This section is from the book "Tree Planting For Timber And Fuel", by C. B. Mcnaughton.
The Robinia pseud-acacia which thrives in many parts of the Karroo, is treated similarly and the cultivation is almost identical, the objects being the same. The latter tree is more indifferent to depth and quality of soil but perhaps more exacting as regards good drainage and loose condition.
Both trees are well worth trial, as coppice, at Oudtshoorn, for if vine props are not yet necessary they may become so, and poles and the class of timber they will yield will always prove valuable. The wood of the Robinia is hard, heavy, close-grained and compact, extremely durable and valuable in construction and turnery work.
A tree 45 feet to 65 feet in height, growing naturally on granitic and clay slate formation on the sea coast of California. The wood is moderately heavy, hard and strong, compact clear grained, easily worked and very durable.
Has proved successful in many parts of the Colony and flourishes in the higher altitudes of Natal. May be successful in parts of Rust-en-Vrede.
A Northern Indian cypress reaching a height of 120 feet, from the outer ranges of the Western Himalayas, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet, found chiefly on limestone formation. In Northern India it has been a good deal planted. It is easy to rear and grows fast. The wood is light about 88 lbs. per cubic foot—and is very durable. It is recommended for building, railway sleepers etc. The species may prove of value in the Zwartberg Mountains.
An Algerian variety of the common European or English Ash. This variety has proved the hardiest of all the family in South Africa, and is well worthy of trial at Rust-en-Vrede.
This native of Hungary and Greece has already been established in the Cango Valley and other parts of the Oudtshoorn district—principally as a fruit-bearing tree. In a suitable locality with a calcareous soil the tree may reach the height of 100 feet. The wood is light, tough and frequently beautifully figured. It is much sought after for gun stocks, furniture, veneering, etc
A tree reaching 75 to 100 feet and a diameter of 2 to 4 feet, this Cedar is one of the most widely distributed of the American coniferas. Preferring gravelly ridges or limestone hills it reaches its greatest development in the valley of the Red River, Texas. It is very hardy against frost and drought but is somewhat slow growing. The wood is light, soft, not strong, very close and straight grained, compact, easily worked, odorous and very durable in contact with the ground. It is used for posts, sills, railway sleepers, interior finish, cabinet making and almost exclusively for pencils, and is probably one of the most valuable timbers of the world.
When it can be successfully grown it will prove a very valuable forest asset. It fully merits an extended trial in the Zwartberg.
A pine of Southern Europe extending to an altitude of 6,000 feet and reaching a height of 150 feet. Succeeds in stiff clay as well as in sandy soil but grows best on calcareous soils. Its growth has proved somewhat slow in the coast district of South Africa and even in the higher altitudes of Natal.
The wood is resinous, coarse grained, elastic and durable, and is much esteemed for building purposes, especially water works and where a timber is required for contact with the ground. It is probably one of the most valuable pine-woods of Europe.
A pine found principally in Southern Europe, North Africa, and South Western Asia.
It attains a height of some 80 feet and a diameter of some 6 to 8 feet. Specimens are to be seen in the old George Drostdy grounds. It has proved hardy to frost and drought in South Africa and while it flourishes naturally best in coast lands has done well in the inland parts of the Colony. The timber is of pale colour, rather coarse and brittle, but is used for ship and general building and for furniture and may be regarded as generally serviceable.
Found naturally in the Canary Islands—in pure forest—at an altitude of about 5,000 feet, where it reaches a height growth of about 100 feet. The timber is resinous and durable, and fairly valuable.
In South Africa it has proved somewhat slow growing at least in the lower coast altitudes, but will probably shew better results in the mountains at from 2,000 to 3,000 feet.
This pine, known locally and in America as the " Monterey Pine" is a native of California, and is somewhat rare and local naturally, being found in sandy soil in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea coast. At present it is very largely cultivated on the Pacific Coast for shelter and ornament.
Reaching a height of 100 feet and a diameter of 3 to 4 feet, with beautiful dark green foliage this is one of the handsomest pines in America. The wood is light, soft, not strong, brittle, close grained and compact and is used for various purposes.
In cultivation it is probably the quickest growing of all pines, and it certainly is in South Africa, where it has been extensively and successfully introduced. It is somewhat subject to disease and to insect attack. In Europe it suffers much from the Pine Beetle (Hylutgus Piniperda), and in South Africa, at Port Cunnynghame, Cape Colony from the caterpillar of a large moth (Antheraea cytherea, Fab.). At Tokai, Concordia and elsewhere a fungus disease (Hysterium pinaster, Scrad. etfries) has been noticed on the foliage but principally I think in its saprophlytic form. This is not to be feared in drier localities.
In spite of these drawbacks its many advantages call for its cultivation wherever possible and it is certainly to be recommended for Rust-en-Vrede.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the seventeen species enumerated, while limited in number, will if successfully established, provide for the more important requirements to which timber trees are put. A short recapitulation may be here convenient.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. crebra, E. diversicolor, E. globulus, E. sideroxylon, and E. tereticornis, Cupressus macrocarpa, and C. torulosa, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus laricio, P. insignis, P. Canariensis, and P. halepensis.
Eucalyptus diversicolor, E. globulus, E. sideroxylon, and E. tereti--cornis, Oupressus macrocarpa, and C. torulosa, Pinus insignis, P. halepensis, P. Canariensis, and P. laricio.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. diversicolor, and E. globulus, Juglans regia, Pinus laricio, P. halepensis, P. Canariensis, and P. insignis.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. diversicolor, E. globulus, and E. tereticornis, Castanea sativa, Robina pseud-acacia, Pinus laricio, P. Canariensis.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. crebra, E. sideroxylon, and E. tereticornis Castanea sativa, Robinia pseud acacia; Cupressus macrocarpa, C torulosa, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus laricio and P. Canariensis.
Eucalyptus globulus, E. diversicolor, and E. tereticornis; Cupressus torulosa, and C. macrocarpa ; Pinus laricio and P. Canariensis.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon, and E. tereticornis; Castanea sativa, Cupressus torulosa, Juniperus virginiana and Pinus laricio.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. diversicolor, and E. globulus; Castanea sativa; Fraxinus excelsior, var. kabylia, Juniperus virginiana.
Eucalyptus corynocalix, E. diversicolor, E. globulus, and E. tereticornis ; Castanea sativa, Robinia pseud-acacia, Fraxinus excelsior var. kabylia; Pinus laricio, Pinus Canariensis and P. insignis.
Eucalyptus globulus, E. diversicolor, and E. corynocalix, Castanea sativa, Robinia pseud-acacia, Cupressus macrocarpa and C. torulosa, Fraxinus excelsior, var. Kabylia, Juglans regia, Juniperus virginiana Pinus laricio, P. halepensis, P. Canariensis.
Eucalyptus diversicolor, E. globulus, E. corynocalix, E. tereticornis, E. crebra and E. sideroxylon; Castanea sativa ; Oupressus macrocarpa, and C. torulosa; Fraxinus excelsior, var. kabylia, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus laricio, P. halepensis, P. Canariensis and P. insignis.
From the foregoing a fair selection may be made according to requirements. Some species may not prove successful and some perhaps warrant only a limited trial.