Annuals

These are plants which develop from seed, flower, and produce seed in one year ; in other words they complete their life history in one season, e.g., Peas and Broad Beans.

Aphis

This is a small insect that obtains food from the juices of plants ; they are generally known as " plant lice " and belong to the order of insects called the Hemiptera or half-winged insects.

Artificials

These are chemical manures, such as Nitrate of Soda.

Axillary Growths

These are the shoots that grow in the axils on the stem ; viz., in the angle formed by the stem and leaf.

Biennials

These are plants that take two years to complete their life history, e.g., Turnip and Beet.

Budding

A process by which fruit trees and Roses are propagated. See page 118.

Bush

A name applied to a compact form of fruit tree.

Blight

A general name which is given to insect and fungoid pests.

Bordeaux Mixture

This is used as a spray or wash for fungoid pests, especially Potato disease, and is made as follows :-Dissolve 2 lbs. of sulphate of copper in hot water and H lbs. of fresh quick-lime in cold water ; add the solutions and make up to 20 gallons by the addition of water.

Compost

A mixture of leaf mould and manure.

Cotyledons

The seed leaves or lobes of the seed.

Cruciferae

An important order of plants of which the most familiar member is the Cabbage.

Clamp

A storage for root crops. (Saxon clam, a bandage, viz., that which holds anything.)

Dibber

A tool used for planting.

Friable

A term applied to soils which are in good physical condition and therefore can be easily broken up.

Fungicide

Sprays or washes that are used for the destruction of fungoid pests.

Grafting

A means of propagating fruit trees. See page 115.

Haulm

A term applied to the stems of Potatoes, Beans and Peas.

Ichneumon

A small insect that places its eggs in living caterpillars, and as the grubs develop the host larva is gradually killed.

Insecticide

Remedies employed for the destruction of insect pests.

Kainit

A chemical manure.

Larva

A caterpillar or grub.

Legumes

Pod bearing vegetables.

Leguminosae

The Pea family.

Ligature

The bast, rush grass or raffia which is tied round grafts and buds. A ligature is also employed for attaching a tree to a stake.

Muriate

An old name for a chloride.

Mulch

A dressing placed on the soil in order to prevent rapid evaporation.

Paraffin Emulsion

This mixture is made as follows :-In 1 1/2 gallons of water place 4 ozs. of soft soap and 4 ozs. of quassia and boil ; while the mixture is boiling add a wine-glass full of paraffin.

Plumule

The stem shoot which appears in germination.

Perennials

Plants which live a number of years.

Pruning

The removal of the growth shoots from fruit trees for the purpose of promoting fruitfulness. See page 109.

Pyramid

A name given to a certain form of fruit tree.

Pupa

The chrysalis.

Paris Green

This mixture, which is a dangerous poison, is prepared as follows :-One oz. of Paris Green is mixed with 20 gallons of water.

Quassia

This is an insecticide, and is made by allowing lb. of quassia chips to soak in one gallon of water.

Raffia

This is tying material which is indispensable to the gardener.

Radicle

The root shoot, which is seen in the early stages of germination.

Scion

The ripened shoot which is used in grafting.

Stock

The stem of the fruit tree on to which the scion is fixed.

Secateurs

An instrument especially constructed for pruning.

Standard

A tall growing fruit tree with a clean stem.

Spores

The small bodies which develop on matured fungi and ferns, and by means of which new plants are reproduced.

Spit

The depth of soil moved in digging.

Subsoil

The layer of earth found below the surface soil.

Tap-Root

The main root of a plant.

Tilth

The condition of the surface soil secured by very careful cultivation.

Trenching

Deep digging by which the subsoil is brought up and becomes surface soil ; in bastard trenching a similar depth of soil may be moved, but the layers retain their positions. See page 14.