Other Expenses

In addition to the work already described, some of the other items of expenditure involved in opening up an estate may here be briefly enumerated. In the first place, there are the salaries of the Superintendent and his assistants, and the wages of native overseers, watchers and guards. Houses must be provided for all these in addition to "lines" for the coolies, stores, hospital and dispensary, cart sheds and other buildings. On large estates horses and stabling must be provided for the Superintendent

A full survey of the estate is necessary, and a large scale map should be prepared showing watercourses and other physical features, together with the subdivision of the estate into fields of 50 or 100 acres. Carts or lorries or boats will be required, according to the method of transport adopted. The food of the coolies is mainly supplied by the estate and charged to their account Other items are medicines, cattle food, fuel, etc.

Tools

The large hoe universally employed for digging in the barefooted East is known as a chankol in Malaya and as a mamoti in Ceylon. Digging, draining and a certain amount of weeding are done with this implement. Felling axes, cross-cut saws and bill hooks are required for clearing, and for lighter work the parang is used in Malaya and the katty in Ceylon. For nursery work, rakes and watering cans are required, and a kind of crow-bar is generally used for digging holes for planting. These, with pruning knives and saws, complete the list of tools required on a rubber estate before the time for tapping arrives.

In addition to the above, the Superintendent will require measuring tapes and chains and a few simple surveying instruments.

I am indebted to Mr W. N. Tisdall for the following estimate for planting 500 acres of rubber and for bringing it into bearing under average conditions in Ceylon :

Purchase price of Crown Land may be any figure between Rs. 75 and 250.

First Year (opening).

Per acre

Felling and clearing ............

15.00

Holing 20'x20', 108 @ 6 cts..........

6.48

Filling ..................

1.00

Liming

1.50

Weeding, 6 months @ 2/-, 6 months @ 1/50 ...

21.00

Planting ..................

1.50

Nurseries and plants ............

5.00

Fencing (Barbed and Mesh) .........

10.00

Roading, including blasting, etc..........

12.50

Draining .........

17.50

Supervision ...

15.00

Buildings, 50 coolie rooms ©25/2 ......

2.50

Bungalows, etc. ............

3.00

Coolies, advances, 200 @ 60/- .........

20.00

Medical, etc ...............

5.00

Second Year.

general upkeep and supplying, etc.......

50.00

Third Year.

general upkeep and supplying, etc.......

45.00

Fourth Year.

general upkeep and supplying, etc.......

40.00

Fifth Year.

general upkeep and supplying, etc.......

35-00

Permanent Buildings, etc. .........

120.00

Rs.

426.98

The sixth year should show a good return. Under Favourable circumstances this estimate could be reduced, but it provides for the best class of work.