Heat jelly glasses and jars in a pan of hot water, or put water in a baking pan and place in a moderate oven. This allows the air to escape and prevents the jars from breaking when the hot liquid is poured in. Fill the jars to overflowing. Run a silver knife down the sides, so that the air bubbles will arise to the surface. Screw on the covers, wash the jars off, and when cold screw on the cover again as tight as possible.
Put on the top of jellies pieces of paper cut to fit the glasses, dipped in brandy. Cover neatly with rounds of soft white paper, cut larger than the glass, dipped in the white of egg, and press in little folds neatly around the edges, or dip the paper in a flour and water mixture.
Throw apples and pears into cold water to keep them from discoloring.
Keep preserves and jellies in a dry, cool place. In heating the sugar, be careful not to brown it. Parboil lemons to take out the bitter taste.
Six pounds of skinned tomatoes, eight coffee cups of sugar, two coffee cups of water, one-half cup of green ginger after it is sliced, three lemons. Put water, sugar and ginger on to boil together for a few moments. Parboil lemons to take out the bitter, then slice them thin, then add with tomatoes, pouring off the water from the latter. Cook all slowly two or more hours. This will fill three quart jars. Prepare the ginger beforehand, as it is very tedious. Green ginger can be procured in Chinatown, and will keep fresh a long time in a cool place. Put away as directed.
Stone the cherries, measure a bowl of fruit and the same quantity of sugar. Put in preserving kettle over night a layer of cherries and a layer of sugar. In the morning cook slowly without stirring until the liquid is clear and the fruit soft.
Pits of cherries may be added if the flavor is desired. All other small fruit may be cooked in the same way. Another way is to make a syrup of one pound of granulated sugar and two-thirds of a pound of brown sugar. When the syrup has cooked twenty-five minutes and been well skimmed, drop in the fruit and when soft remove into hot jars ; reduce the syrup and pour over.
Seven pounds of tomatoes, five and one-quarter pounds of sugar, one ounce of green ginger-root, two lemons. Prick each tomato before cooking to let out the air. Pour scalding water over the ginger, let it stand fifteen minutes, scrape off the skin, break into pieces, and wash again. Put the sugar into the kettle with just enough water to dissolve it (about one cup of water to each pound of sugar). When dissolved add the ginger, sliced lemon and tomatoes. Cook until tender (about half an hour), then take out the tomatoes and cook syrup one and one-half hours, or until thick.
Four pounds of peaches, one pound of sugar, one quart of water. Scald and pare peaches, and cover with cold water. Put sugar and water in porcelain-lined kettle, place on the fire, and stir until dissolved. Drain peaches, and put them into the syrup, bring quickly to a boil, then stand where they will scarcely bubble, until tender. Fill the hot tin cans quickly, and seal at once.
Take six oranges, boil till tender, in three quarts of water till soft, remove the oranges. To the water add five pounds of sugar, boil three-fourths of an hour. Slice the oranges thin, add to the syrup, boil three-fourths hours. Add the juice of one lemon after taking off the stove.
Stem the grapes and mash them in the preserving kettle. Boil freely for twenty minutes, then strain. To every pint of juice allow one pound of sugar. Boil juice five minutes, skimming carefully. Warm sugar and add gradually, stirring until thoroughly melted ; boil ten minutes. Select grapes that are firm, and not quite ripe.
Seven pounds of grapes, five pounds of sugar, one ounce (scant) of cloves, and the same of cinnamon, one-half pint of vinegar. Pulp the grapes, keeping the skins. Put pulp in kettle, and cook until the seeds separate. Then strain and add to the skins, with sugar, spice and vinegar. Boil fifteen minutes, stirring all the time.
Buy currants when they first come into the market. Wash and dry ; do not stem. Squeeze through a strong bag, or through four thicknesses of cheesecloth. Strain again through a hair sieve. To every quart of juice add two-thirds of a quart of sugar. Boil the juice hard for fifteen minutes ; skim ; add heated sugar, boil up once. Skim, and fill jelly glasses. Cover when cold.
To every pound of strawberries add two-thirds pounds of granulated sugar. Pick over berries. Throw the sugar over the berries ; let them stand over night.
Put the berries and sugar into preserving kettle and cook till the berries are soft, being careful to keep them whole ; skim, thin out carefully, drain them. Cook the syrup till thick. Put the berries into hot jars, cover with the sugar. If you wish them a bright red, color the syrup with fruit coloring.
Pound of blackberries. To each pound of berries allow one half pound of sugar. Cook one hour slowly, skim carefully.
Blackberries cooked whole are hard.