Soups are usually divided into two classes:

1. Broths, or thin soups, to which may be added cooked grains or vegetables cut in various shapes and sizes for garniture, and to give variety and flavor. While these thin soups are lacking in nutriment to be found in those made of more solid foods, they are valuable, however, for the stimulating effect they have on the gastric juice, and when taken at the beginning of the meal, and in small quantities, they aid in the digestion of the more solid foods.

2. Those which usually have as their basis cooked vegetables, grains, or legumes, forced through a strainer and diluted with the liquid in which they were cooked, or with milk or cream, or both. Like all other foods, soups require the action of the saliva for digestion, and when eaten slowly with some dry foods as sticks or croutons, are both appetizing and nourishing.

Cream Of Tomato

1 cup tomato pulp, § cup thin cream, 1 tablespoon flour, salt to taste.

Heat the cream in a double boiler. Bring the tomato to boil in another sauce pan, thicken each slightly with the flour braided smooth in cold water; then set on the edge of the stove and pour the tomato into the prepared cream, season to taste and strain again through a fine strainer and serve. By thickening the cream and tomato slightly before mixing, the curdling, which is such a frequent cause of disappointment in making this soup, is largely avoided.

Cream Of Corn

1/2 cup corn, 1 1/4 cups milk, 1/4 cup rich cream, 1 tablespoon flour.

Grind the corn through a fine mill; put it into a double boiler with the milk, and heat to boiling point; braid the flour smooth in cold milk or water, stir into the corn, and let it cook twenty minutes; mash through a strainer and finish with the cream; add salt to taste, and serve.

Cream Of Green Peas

1/2 can of green peas, 1/3 cup water, 1 cup milk, 1/2 cup rich cream.

Add the water to the peas, and heat it to the boiling point, then mash them through a colander. Heat the milk and cream separately in a double boiler. Force the peas through a colander, add the hot milk and cream, season, and strain through a fine strainer. Fresh peas are far the best for this soup when in season.

Cream Of Potato Soup

1 1/2 cups sliced raw potato, 1 1/3 cups cold water, 1 green onion, 1 cup thin cream, salt to taste. Add the cold water to the sliced potato, onion, and salt, and boil until the potato is well done. Force it through a fine colander. Have the cream heated separately in a double boiler, and pour into the potato; salt to taste, strain through a fine strainer, finish with chopped parsley if desired, and serve.

Juilenne

2/3 cup potato, 1/3 cup carrot, 1/3 cup turnip, 1/2 cup cauliflowerlets, 2 stalks celery, 1 ripe tomato, 1 small onion, 2 cups water, 2 cups bean broth, chopped parsley.

Cut all the vegetables except the cauliflower into thin shreds of about one-half inch lengths. Add the carrot, turnip, celery, onion, and salt to the water, and when they are just barely done add the cauliflowerlets, potato, and tomato and cook until all is thoroughly done, but avoid mashing them up. Finish with a little chopped parsley, and serve.

Potage St. Germain

1 cup sliced raw potato, 1/3 can green peas, 1/4 cup celery, 1 tablespoon onion, 2 cups water.

Add the sliced potato, celery, onion, and salt to the water, and boil until potatoes are well cooked. Add the peas, bring to a boil, mash up well with an egg beater, and force through a fine strainer; serve with crutons.

Fruit Soup

1 cup blackberry or strawberry juice, 2/3 cup water, 1 teaspoon lemon juice, 1 1/2 tablespoons sago, sweeten to taste.

Heat the liquid to the boiling point in a double boiler, wash the sago and drain well from the water, stir into the fruit juice; let it cook in double boiler until the sago is transparent. When served cold, drop a choice ripe berry into each bowl on dishing up.

When making cream soups from fresh vegetables as lettuce, cauliflower, celery, onion, etc., the vegetable is simply used as a flavor, the body of the soup being made from a mixture of potato, water and onion, and the vegetable added for flavor and garniture. Thus, by being able to make one of these soups, others can be made by substituting different vegetables for flavor and change. As an illustration we give the following one:

Cream Of Lettuce

1 1/2 cups sliced raw potato, 1 1/3 cups cold water, 1 large head lettuce shredded, 1 round tablespoon onion, 1 cup milk, 1/2 cup thick cream, salt to taste.

Put the sliced potato, onion, water, and salt on to cook, and when the potato is about done, add the shredded lettuce and let it boil rapidly for about ten minutes or more. Have the milk and cream heated in another vessel. Mash the potato and lettuce through a colander, adding the hot milk and cream as it goes through. Put again through a fine strainer, serve with croutons or small bits of shredded and wilted lettuce. Very green, or outside leaves of lettuce are bitter, and should not be used for soup, but should be first removed.